IELTS Reading Practice Test 05 from

ielts reading practice test 05 from


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

The “Extinct” Grass in Britain

Bromus interruptus, commonly known as the interrupted brome, is a plant in the true grass family. Called interrupted brome because of its gappy seed-head, this unprepossessing grass was found nowhere else in the world. Sharp-eyed Victorian botanists were the first to notice it, and by the 1920s the odd-looking grass had been found across much of southern England. Yet its decline was just as dramatic. By 1972 it had vanished from its last toehold—two hay fields at Pampisford, near Cambridge. Even the seeds stored at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden as an insurance policy were dead, having been mistakenly kept at room temperature. Botanists mourned: a unique living entity was gone forever.

Yet reports of its demise proved premature. Interrupted brome has come back from the dead, and not through any fancy genetic engineering. Thanks to one greenfingered botanist, interrupted brome is alive and well living as a pot plant. It’s Britain’s dodo, which is about to become a phoenix, as conservationists set about relaunching its career in the wild.

At first, Philip Smith was unaware that the scrawny pots of grass on his bench were all that remained of a uniquely British species. But when news of the “extinction” of Bromus interruptus finally reached him, he decided to astonish his colleagues. He seized his opportunity at a meeting of the Botanical Society of the British Isles in Manchester in 1979, where he was booked to talk about his research on the evolution of the brome grasses. It was sad, he said, that interrupted brome had become extinct. Then he whipped out two enormous pots of it. The extinct grass was very much alive. It turned out that Smith had collected seeds from the brome’s last refuge at Pampisford in 1963, shortly before the species disappeared from the wild altogether. Ever since then, Smith had grown the grass on, year after year. So in the end the hapless grass survived not through some high-powered conservation scheme or fancy genetic manipulation, but simply because one man was interested in it. As Smith points out, interrupted brome isn’t particularly attractive and has no commercial value.

The brome’s future, at least in cultivation, now seems assured. Seeds from Smith’s plants have been securely stored in the state-of-the-art Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place in Sussex. And living plants thrive at the botanic gardens at Kew, Edinburgh and Cambridge. This year, “bulking up” is under way to make sure there are plenty of plants in all the gardens, and sacksful of seeds are being stockpiled at strategic sites throughout the country. The brome’s relaunch into the British countryside is next on the agenda. English Nature has included interrupted brome in its Species Recovery Programme, and it is on track to be reintroduced into the agricultural landscape, if friendly farmers can be found. The brome was probably never common enough to irritate farmers, but no one would value it today for its productivity or its nutritious qualities. As a grass, it leaves agriculturalists cold.

So where did it come from? Smith’s research into the taxonomy of the brome grasses suggests that interrupts almost certainly mutated from another weedy grass, soft brome, hordeaceus. So close is the relationship that interrupted brome was originally deemed to be a mere variety of soft brome by the great Victorian taxonomist Professor Hackel. But in 1895, George Claridge Druce, a 45-year-old Oxford pharmacist with a shop on the High Street, decided that it deserved species status, and convinced the botanical world. Druce was by then well on his way to fame as an Oxford don, mayor of the city, and a fellow of the Royal Society.

The brome’s parentage may be clear, but the timing of its birth is more obscure. A clue lies in its penchant for growing as a weed in fields sown with a fodder crop— particularly nitrogen-fixing legumes such as sainfoin, lucerne or clover. According to agricultural historian Joan Thirsk, sainfoin and its friends made their first modest appearance in Britain in the early 1600s. Seeds brought in from the Continent were sown in pastures to feed horses and other livestock. And by 1650 the legumes were increasingly introduced into arable rotations, to serve as “green nature” to boost grain yields. A bestseller of its day, Nathaniel Fiennes’s Sainfoin Improved, published in 1671, helped to spread the word.

Although the credit for the “discovery” of interrupted brome goes to a Miss A.M. Barnard, who collected the first specimens at Odsey, Bedfordshire, in 1849, the grass had probably lurked undetected in the English countryside for at least a hundred years. Smith thinks the botanical dodo probably evolved in the late 17th or early 18th century, once sainfoin became established. The brome’s fortunes then declined dramatically over the 20th century, not least because the advent of the motor car destroyed the market for fodder crops for horses.

Like many once-common arable weeds, such as the corncockle, the seeds of interrupted brome cannot survive long in the soil. Each spring, the brome relied on farmers to resow its seeds; in the days before weedkillers and sophisticated seed sieves, an ample supply would have contaminated stocks of crop seed. But fragile seeds are not the brome’s only problem: this species is also reluctant to release its seeds as they ripen. Show it a ploughed field today and this grass will struggle to survive, says Smith. It will be difficult to establish in today’s “improved” agricultural landscape, inhabited by notoriously vigorous competitors.

Interrupted brome’s reluctance to spread under its own steam could have advantages, however. Any farmer willing to foster this unique contribution to the world’s flora can rest assured that the grass will never become an invasive pest. Restoring interrupted brome to its rightful home could bring positive benefits too, once this quirky grass wins recognition as a unique national monument. British farmers made it possible for interrupted brome to evolve in the first place. Let the grass grow once again in its “natural” habitat, say the conservationists, and it could become a badge of honour for a new breed of eco-friendly farmer.

Questions 1 – 8

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?

In boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true

FALSE if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN if the statement is not given in the passage

1. The name of interrupted brome comes from the fact that the unprepossessing grass disappeared from places in the world for a period.

2. Interrupted brome became extinct because they were kept accidentally at room temperature.

3. Philip Smith worked at the University of Manchester.

4. English Nature has planned to recover the interrupted brome with seeds from Kew Botanic Gardens.

5. Farmers in the British countryside were pleased to grow interrupted brome for the agricultural landscape.

6. Legumes were used for feeding livestock and enriching the soil.

7. Interrupted brome grows poorly when competing with other energetic plants.

8. Only weedkillers can stop interrupted brome becoming an invasive pest.

Questions 9 – 13

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below.

Write the appropriate letters A—F in boxes 9—13 on your answer sheet.

9. identified interrupted brome as another species of brome.

10. convinced others about the status of interrupted brome in the botanic world.

11. found interrupted brome together with sainfoin.

12. helped farmers know that sainfoin is useful for enriching the soil.

13. collected the first sample of interrupted brome.

A. A.M. Barnard

B. Professor Hackel

C. George Claridge Druce

D. Joan Thirsk

E. Philip Smith

F. Nathaniel Fiennes


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

The culture of Chimpanzees

Humankind’s nearest relative is even doser than we thought: chimpanzees display remarkable behaviours that can only be described as social customs passed on from generation to generation.

A. Researchers have studied the similarities between chimpanzees and humans for years, but in the past decade they have determined that these resemblances run much deeper than anyone first thought. For instance, the nut cracking observed in the Tai Forest is far from a simple chimpanzee behaviour; rather it is a singular adaptation found only in that particular part of Africa and a trait that biologists consider to be an expression of chimpanzee culture. Scientists frequently use the term “culture” to describe elementary animal behaviours, but as it turns out, the rich and varied cultural traditions found among chimpanzees are second in complexity only to human traditions.

B. During the past two years, an unprecedented scientific collaboration, involving every major research group studying chimpanzees, has documented a multitude of distinct cultural patterns extending across Africa, in actions ranging from the animals’ use of tools to their forms of communications and social customs. This emerging picture of chimpanzees not only affects how we think of these amazing creatures but also alters human beings’ conception of our own uniqueness and hints at ancient foundations for extraordinary capacity for culture.

C. Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes have coexisted for hundreds of millennia and share more than 98 percent of their genetic material, yet only 40 years ago we still knew next to nothing about chimpanzee behaviour in the wild. That began to change in the 1960s, when Toshisada Nishida of Kyoto University in Japan and Jane Goodall began their studies of wild chimpanzees at two field sites in Tanzania. Goodall’s research station at Gombe—the first of its kind—is more famous.

D. In these initial studies, as the chimpanzees became accustomed to close observation, the remarkable discoveries began. Researchers witnessed a range of unexpected behaviours, including fashioning and using tools, hunting, meat eating, food sharing and lethal fights between members of neighbouring communities. In the years that followed, other primatologists set up camp elsewhere, and, despite all the financial, political and logistical problems that can beset African fieldwork, several of these out-posts became truly long-term projects. As a result, we live in an unprecedented time, when an intimate and comprehensive scientific record of chimpanzees’ lives at last exists not just for one but for several communities spread across Africa.

E. As early as 1973, Goodall recorded 13 forms of tool use as well as eight social activities that appeared to differ between the Gombe chimpanzees and chimpanzee populations elsewhere. She ventured that some variations had what she termed a cultural origin. But what exactly did Goodall mean by “culture”? The diversity of human cultures extends from technological variations to marriage rituals, from culinary habits to myths and legends. Animals do not have myths and legends, of course. But they do have the capacity to pass on behavioural traits from generation to generation, not through their genes but by learning. For biologists, this is the fundamental criterion for a cultural trait: it must be something that can be learned by observing the established skills of others and thus passed on to future generations.

F. What of the implications for chimpanzees themselves? We must highlight the tragic loss of chimpanzees, whose populations are being decimated just when we are at last coming to appreciate these astonishing animals more completely. The bushmeat trade is particularly alarming: logging has driven roadways into the forests that are now used to ship wild-animal meat— including chimpanzee meat—to consumers as far afield as Europe. Such destruction threatens not only the animals themselves but also a host of fascinatingly different ape cultures.

G. Perhaps the cultural richness of the ape may yet help in its salvation, however. Some conservation efforts have already altered the attitudes of some local people. A few organizations have begun to show videotapes illustrating the cognitive prowess of chimpanzees. One Zairian viewer was heard to exclaim, “Ah, this ape is so like me, I can no longer eat him.”

H. How an international team of chimpanzee experts conduct the most comprehensive survey of the animals ever attempted? Scientists have been investigating chimpanzee culture for several decades, but too often their studies have contained a crucial flaw. Most attempts to document cultural diversity among chimpanzees have relied solely on officially published accounts of the behaviours recorded at each research site. But this approach probably overlooks a good deal of cultural variation for three reasons.

I. Firstly, scientists typically don’t publish an extensive list of all the activities they do not see at a particular location. Yet this is exactly what we need to know—which behaviours were and were not observed at each site. Second, many reports describe chimpanzee behaviours without saying how common they are; without this information, we can’t determine whether a particular action was a once-in-a-lifetime aberration or a routine event that should be considered part of the animals’ culture. Finally, researchers’ descriptions of potentially significant chimpanzee behaviour frequently lack sufficient detail, making it difficult for scientists working at other spots to record the presence or absence of the activities.

J. To remedy these problems, the two of us decided to take a new approach. We asked field researchers at each site for a list of all the behaviours they suspected were local traditions. With this information in hand, we pulled together a comprehensive list of 65 candidates for cultural behaviours.

K. Then we distributed our list to the team leaders at each site. In consultation with their colleagues, they classified each behaviour in terms of its occurrence or absence in the chimpanzee community studied. The key categories were customary behaviour, habitual, present, absent, and unknown. We should note, however, that certain cultural traits are no doubt passed on by a combination of imitation and simpler kinds of social learning. Either way, learning from elders is crucial to growing up as a competent wild chimpanzee.

Questions 14 – 18

Reading Passage 2 has eleven paragraphs A—K.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A—K, in boxes 14—18 on your answer sheet.

14 A problem of research on chimpanzee culture which is only based on official sources

15 A new system designed by two scientists aiming to solve the problem

16 Reasons why previous research on ape culture is inadequate

17 Classification of data observed or collected

18 An example showing cognitive powers of animals leading to indication of change in local people’s attitude toward preservation

Questions 19-22

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

19 Research found that chimpanzees will possess the same complex culture as humans.

20 Human and apes ancestors lived together long ago and share most of their genetic substance.

21 Jane Goodall has observed many surprising features of complex behaviours among chimpanzees.

22 Chimpanzees, like humans, derive cultural behaviours mostly from genetic inheritance.

Questions 23 – 26

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND / OR A NUMBER from passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.

23 When did the unexpected discoveries of chimpanzee behaviour start?

24 Which country is the research site of Toshisada Nishida and Jane Goodall?

25 What did the chimpanzees have to get used to in the initial study?

26 What term did Jane Goodall use in 1973 to explain groups of chimpanzees using tools differently?


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

personality and appearance

When Charles Darwin applied to be the “energetic young man” that Robert Fitzroy, the Beagle’s captain, sought as his gentleman companion, he was almost let down by a woeful shortcoming that was as plain as the nose on his face. Fitzroy believed in physiognomy—the idea that you can tell a person’s character from their appearance. As Darwin’s daughter Henrietta later recalled, Fitzroy had “made up his mind that no man with such a nose could have energy”. This was hardly the case. Fortunately, the rest of Darwin’s visage compensated for his sluggardly proboscis: “His brow saved him.”

The idea that a person’s character can be glimpsed in their face dates back to the ancient Greeks. It was most famously popularised in the late 18th century by the Swiss poet Johann Lavater, whose ideas became a talking point in intellectual circles. In Darwin’s day, they were more or less taken as given. It was only after the subject became associated with phrenology, which fell into disrepute in the late 19th century, that physiognomy was written off as pseudoscience.

First impressions are highly influential, despite the well-worn admonition not to judge a book by its cover. Within a tenth of a second of seeing an unfamiliar face we have already made a judgement about its owner’s character—caring, trustworthy, aggressive, extrovert, competent and so on. Once that snap judgement has formed, it is surprisingly hard to budge. People also act on these snap judgements. Politicians with competent-looking faces have a greater chance of being elected, and CEOs who look dominant are more likely to run a profitable company. There is also a wellestablished “attractiveness halo”. People seen as good-looking not only get the most valentines but are also judged to be more outgoing, socially competent, powerful, intelligent and healthy.

In 1966, psychologists at the University of Michigan asked 84 undergraduates who had never met before to rate each other on five personality traits, based entirely on appearance, as they sat for 15 minutes in silence. For three traits—extroversion, conscientiousness and openness—the observers’ rapid judgements matched real personality scores significantly more often than chance. More recently, researchers have re-examined the link between appearance and personality, notably Anthony Little of the University of Stirling and David Perrett of the University of St Andrews, both in the UK. They pointed out that the Michigan studies were not tightly controlled for confounding factors. But when Little and Perrett re-ran the experiment using mugshots rather than live subjects, they also found a link between facial appearance and personality—though only for extroversion and conscientiousness. Little and Perrett claimed that they only found a correlation at the extremes of personality.

Justin Carre and Cheryl McCormick of Brock University in Ontario, Canada studied 90 ice-hockey players. They found that a wider face in which the cheekbone-tocheekbone distance was unusually large relative to the distance between brow and upper lip was linked in a statistically significant way with the number of penalty minutes a player was given for violent acts including slashing, elbowing, checking from behind and fighting. The kernel of truth idea isn’t the only explanation on offer for our readiness to make facial judgements. Leslie Zebrowitz, a psychologist at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, says that in many cases snap judgements are not accurate. The snap judgement, she says, is often an “overgeneralisation” of a more fundamental response. A classic example of overgeneralisation can be seen in predators’ response to eye spots, the conspicuous circular markings seen on some moths, butterflies and fish. These act as a deterrent to predators because they mimic the eyes of other creatures that the potential predators might see as a threat.

Another researcher who leans towards overgeneralisation is Alexander Todorov. With Princeton colleague Nikolaas Oosterhof, he recently put forward a theory which he says explains our snap judgements of faces in terms of how threatening they appear. Todorov and Oosterhof asked people for their gut reactions to pictures of emotionally neutral faces, sifted through all the responses, and boiled them down to two underlying factors: how trustworthy the face looks, and how dominant. Todorov and Oosterhof conclude that personality judgements based on people’s faces are an overgeneralisation of our evolved ability to infer emotions from facial expressions, and hence a person’s intention to cause us harm and their ability to carry it out. Todorov, however, stresses that overgeneralisation does not rule out the idea that there is sometimes a kernel of truth in these assessments of personality.

So if there is a kernel of truth, where does it come from? Perrett has a hunch that the link arises when our prejudices about faces turn into self-fulfilling prophecies—an idea that was investigated by other researchers back in 1977. Our expectations can lead us to influence people to behave in ways that confirm those expectations: consistently treat someone as untrustworthy and they end up behaving that way. This effect sometimes works the other way round, however, especially for those who look cute. The Nobel prize-winning ethologist Konrad Lorenz once suggested that baby-faced features evoke a nurturing response. Support for this has come from work by Zebrowitz, who has found that baby-faced boys and men stimulate an emotional centre of the brain, the amygdala, in a similar way. But there’s a twist. Babyfaced men are, on average, better educated, more assertive and apt to win more military medals than their mature-looking counterparts. They are also more likely to be criminals; think Al Capone. Similarly, Zebrowitz found baby-faced boys to be quarrelsome and hostile, and more likely to be academic highfliers. She calls this the “self-defeating prophecy effect”: a man with a baby face strives to confound expectations and ends up overcompensating.

There is another theory that recalls the old parental warning not to pull faces, because they might freeze that way. According to this theory, our personality moulds the way our faces look. It is supported by a study two decades ago which found that angry old people tend to look cross even when asked to strike a neutral expression. A lifetime of scowling, grumpiness and grimaces seemed to have left its mark.

Questions 27 – 31

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet, write

YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say that the writer thinks about this

27 Robert Fitzroy’s first impression of Darwin was accurate.

28 The precise rules of “physiognomy” have remained unchanged since the 18th century.

29 The first impression of a person can be modified later with little effort.

30 People who appear capable are more likely to be chosen to a position of power.

31 It is unfair for good-looking people to be better treated in society.

Questions 32-36

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 32—36 on your answer sheet.

32 What’s true about Anthony Little and David Perrett’s experiment?

A. It is based on the belief that none of the conclusions in the Michigan experiment is accurate.

B. It supports parts of the conclusions in the Michigan experiment.

C. It replicates the study conditions in the Michigan experiment.

D. It has a greater range of faces than in the Michigan experiment.

33 What can be concluded from Justin Carre and Cheryl McCormick’s experiment?

A. A wide-faced man may be more aggressive.

B. Aggressive men have a wide range of facial features.

C. There is no relation between facial features and an aggressive character.

D. It’s necessary for people to be aggressive in competitive games.

34 What’s exemplified by referring to butterfly marks?

A. Threats to safety are easy to notice.

B. Instinct does not necessarily lead to accurate judgment.

C. People should learn to distinguish between accountable and unaccountable judgments.

D. Different species have various ways to notice danger.

35 What is the aim of Alexander Todorov’s study?

A. to determine the correlation between facial features and social development

B. to undermine the belief that appearance is important

C. to learn the influence of facial features on judgments of a person’s personality

D. to study the role of judgments in a person’s relationship

36 Which of the following is the conclusion of Alexander Todorov’s study?

A. People should draw accurate judgments from overgeneralization.

B. Using appearance to determine a person’s character is undependable.

C. Overgeneralization can be misleading as a way to determine a person’s character.

D. The judgment of a person’s character based on appearance may be accurate.

Questions 37 – 40

Complete each sentence with correct ending, A—F, below.

Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.

37 Perret believed people behaving dishonestly

38 The writer supports the view that people with babyish features

39 According to Zebrowitz, baby-faced people who behave dominantly

40 The writer believes facial features

A. judge other people by overgeneralization,

B. may influence the behaviour of other people,

C. tend to commit criminal acts.

D. may be influenced by the low expectations of other people.

E. may show the effect of long-term behaviours.

F. may be trying to repel the expectations of other people.

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Unit 6 – Writing task 2 – Read and understand the topic in Writing task 2

Read and understand the topic in IELTS Writing Task 2

One of the most basic requirements, if you read the grading barem, of Writing, is “address the question”. The question asks me what, I have to answer that. It sounds simple, but the reality is that there are too many friends who are “adventurous”, focusing on “topics” rather than asking questions. So, we need to determine the problem requirements before we start writing Task 2.

Task 2 has 4 main types of topics:

A. Opinion

This topic usually has common sentences such as:

– How much do you agree with this statement?

– Do you agree with this statement?

– To what extent to do you agree with this statement?

You can easily identify this topic when it asks if we have: agree or disagree with a point raised earlier.

With this form, you can choose to follow one of two directions: (1) totally agree / disagree or (2) half lean and half fat (partly agree). With the complete form, you will follow the structure:

Open lesson => Reason 1 => Reason 2 => Summarize

With half lean, half fat form, you will write:

Post => Aspect agree => Disagree aspect => Summarize

Whichever type of answer you choose, the examiner will not judge whether you chose “true” or “false”. However, according to the experience of 99% of IELTS test takers, going “completely” is always safer and easier to write. There are some things that would be silly to write both yes and no, for example:


=> Idea 1: extremely harmful to health

=> Idea 2: looks very cool

Obviously, going in the “completely” direction will be a lot easier to write. Remember, the examiner doesn’t care what you answer, people just care how you express the answer.

B. Discuss / Discuss + Opinion

This article is easy to recognize, because it simply has the word … discuss. The discussion will give you 2 points. It may ask you:

– talking about 2 points of view (A)

– talk about 2 views + give your opinion (B)

This article is also quite easy to write, with type A, you just need to write:

Open lesson => Viewpoint 1 => Viewpoint 2 => Summary

With type B, people will ask what opinion you support, that is, you will have to choose. After choosing the opinion that you support, you will write

Open lesson => Viewpoint 1 => Viewpoints that I support => Summary

Note, when writing point 1 in form B, not that you “object” to this view. You simply give out the reason why others support it.

C. Problems + Solutions

We can identify this form of post quite easily by the phrases:

– What are the causes?

– What do you think causes this?

– What are the solutions?

In short, see “causes” & “solutions”. The way of writing this article is simple:

Open the post => Causes => Solutions => Emphasize the need to do right solutions

When writing causes and solutions, the easiest way is to write in an enumeration, for example

– Causes: There are a number of causes to …

– Solutions: A number of solutions can be used …

Then list out the causes and solutions. Quite systematic and simple.

D. 2-part questions

Finally, there are 2-part questions, which are quite easy to recognize because there will be no sign words for the above forms, but 2 question marks.

=> …? …?

This is also very easy to write:

Go to lesson => Answer question 1 => Answer question 2 => Finish lesson

So here are 4 types of topics in Task 2, please pay attention to write as required so you don’t get lost!

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Unit 5 – Writing task 1 – How to read a large data sheet in IELTS Writing task 1

How to read a large data sheet in IELTS Writing Task 1

Of all the types of tables, Table is probably the most difficult to read. It has too much data and often has no ordering. This leads to a situation where “numbers are still numbers” but have no meaning, making it difficult to compare and describe. So, when approaching a Table, the first thing before starting to write is to rearrange the information to make sense.

Have a look at the following table:

The table below gives information on consumer spending on different items in five different countries in 2002.

You can see there are 15 numbers in this table. Of course, we cannot report each number in turn. Instead, choose a axis to compare. You can go along (by Country) or traverse by each type of item (by Items):

  • Follow Country: if you use Country as the axis to describe, you will consider each country to see how they spend on the three items in the table.
  • Following Items: If Items are axes, you would describe the difference in expenditure for each item of the country.
    When doing Table task, not choosing any axis will give us 2 equivalent posts. In fact, one axis makes us have a more logical article than the other axis. If you notice above, if you write in Country, you will have to write an article of 6 different ideas, while writing in Items, the coal only has 3 different ideas. Similar to the spirit of the chart article, we always try to make fewer and more comparisons. So we can see, if followed Items, our article will have more comparisons (5 objects vs 3 objects). This also means that the reader after reading our article will remember more.

After selecting the axis, we can go into the table description. Like charting articles, you should always comment on this table. Since we have set an axis to describe as Items, we will comment on Items. It can be seen that people spend the most on Food / Drinks / Tobacco and at least on Leisure / Education

Looking at the graph, it is immediately obvious that people in six countries spend the most on food, drinks and tobacco while allocating the smallest portions of their budget to leisure and education.

Note: You can see above is that the word spend on the first side has been paraphrase back to allocate … portion to the back. In Task 1, we try not to repeat the two structures. Of course, you can write “… spend the most … spend the least …”, but the article will be more appreciated if you have more than one way to express an idea.

After making a general comment, you will go into the description along the selected axis. So, if you use Items as an axis, you will describe the difference of the same item in different countries. You should note not to write in this way:

In Food / Drink / Tobacco, Ireland spent A%. Italy spends B%. Spain spends C%. etc.

This style of writing does not reflect the relationship between the countries we want to compare. Instead, group the countries together. Looking at the table, we can clearly see that in Food / Drink / Tobacco, Ireland and Turkey spend significantly more than in the other 3 countries. So you can write:

Among the five countries, it can be noted that the expenditure for food, drinks and tobacco of Turkey and Ireland was significantly higher than that of the others, at 32.14% and 28.91% respectively. In the same category, Italy, Spain and Sweden all spent under 20% of their budget with Sweden having the smallest percentage at 15.77%.

As you can see, none of the expressions are used twice. You can repeat, but if possible, avoid doing this in the same paragraph. Task 1 only has 12-15 sentences, so it is not difficult to paraphrase.

Similarly, you can write a paragraph describing the remaining 2 items as follows:

Compared to food, drinks and tobacco, spending for clothing and footwear is noticeably lower in all countries. With the exception of Italy who spent 9% on these items, the expenditure of the other countries in this category was relatively the same and below 7%. The smallest proportion of spending was allocated to leisure and education. In this category, Turkey has the highest percentage of national consumer expenditure at 4.35% while the smallest figure can be seen in Spain at only 1.98%.

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Unit 4 – Writing task 1 – General comment in IELTS Task 1

General Comment in IELTS Task 01

There is a very important part that is very easy to write in IELTS Writing Task 1 that many people take the exam or ignore, which is the general comment. In the right order, the first task when writing Task 1 is to paraphrase the topic, and before going into describing the details of the drawing, you must write a summary of about 1-2 sentences. You should note that never write more than 2 sentences to summarize, because if you write more, you are writing too specific.

So what do you need to write in the general comment section? Simply what catches your eye first. However, our eyes are not the same. The details you immediately notice may not be seen by others. So, a good rule of thumb for all Task 1 lessons is to: comment on the overall trend and / or order comments.

For this general comment, you should have a sentence template to get started. The most common, easy and effective sentence patterns are:

It is immediately obvious that … = Immediately obvious that …

There are also other spellings such as: It can be seen that …, it is transparent that …, etc. Notice that ways like “I can see” or “we can see” are not mentioned. In Task 1 as well as Task 2, we always try to avoid the use of human pronouns (I, you, we, they, he, she), because these words reduce the formality of the sentence. .

You can also add at the beginning of the phrase:

Looking at the graph / chart / diagram / picture …

In addition to the sentence pattern above, we have a sentence like “Looking at the chart, we have …” quite similar in math. This is an easy-to-remember sentence pattern that every candidate should understand and memorize to make the test smooth and effective.

A. Look in order

With the multi-line graphs or objects as above, ask yourself: which one is the largest or has the highest proportion? So, with the chart above you can write:

Looking at the graph, it is immediately obvious that people in Germany spend the most money on books out of the four countries.

B. Looking at the general trend

For items that have few objects (1-2 subjects) or no clear order, you should comment on the overall trend of all subjects. Although in the picture above, the order of the lines has changed, but in general, the trend of the lines is going up, because the end point is higher than the starting point. You can write:

Looking at the graph, it is immediately obvious that all three countries experience an increase in the number of people aged 65 years and over.

C. General commenting process (Process)

So what about non-numerical articles and trends like Process? For Process threads, you will write a general sentence to group the steps into the main stages: what to start with and what to end with. For example, study the following topic:

The above diagram can be divided into several steps, however, we can divide it into the main stages as follows:

  • Getting started: use limestone and clay to create cement
  • Finish: using cement and other materials to create concrete

After writing the opening sentence: The diagram shows …, we can add the general comment section right behind without having to go to a new sentence:

The diagram shows …, beginning with transforming limestone and clay into cement and finally adding that to a combination of other materials to produce concrete.

D. General comment Maps

Please rely on the peculiarities of maps to comment on it. All maps show the change of a place over the years, and this change usually revolves around the addition and loss of buildings (buildings, roads, …). The map above is a difficult problem of a difficult problem. However, you can see the change of this map taking place in two aspects: the appearance of roads and the appearance of new buildings. If you pay close attention, new buildings only appear after roads are built. So, you can write:

Looking at the picture, it can be seen that more buildings emerge in the village following the construction of different types of roads.

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Unit 3 – Writing Task 1 – The increase / decrease in the IELTS Writing Task 1

The increase / decrease in the IELTS Writing Task 1

Statistically, Task 1 is most likely to fall into a number of graphs that focus on numbers: bar charts, line graphs, pie charts, and tables. In these types of articles, we focus on describing the changing or unchanged of numbers. So one of the most important vocabulary topics for this test is how to say the data increase/decrease

In the most basic form, we have the increase (and decrease) duo. Anyone who takes IELTS must know these two words. However, one more thing that every IELTS test person must know, that is to avoid word duplication. In a 10-15 sentence essay in Task 1, you have to show a wide range of vocabulary, which means you have to know more than one way to say a word. So, do we have other ways to describe the increase and decrease?

1. Increase

Interestingly, the other vocabulary for describing increase/decrease and even “advanced” than increase/decrease are the simple verbs that we come into contact with when we first learn English. Specifically, these are verbs that indicate an upward movement, such as:

Climb (climb the mountain)

.Rise (Sun rises)

Escalate (The escalator goes up)

Or simply go up

The fact that you use a variety of words rather than just using one word will help you easily improve vocabulary points in Task 1. In addition to the words above, sometimes you have to use the words “stronger” to Describe a sharp increase. In English, we also have very “figurative” words to describe this increase:

Shoot like a rocket (verb skyrocket or shoot up)

Soaring like an eagle (verb soar)

2. Reduction

Corresponding to the above rising words, we also have the opposite words with the opposite meaning, for example

Go up => Go down

Rise => Fall

In addition, we also have some other words that are quite memorable and familiar, such as decrease, reduce or drop.

With the sharp decline, in IELTS you will mainly use two words that are also relatively “figurative”: dip (sink) and plunge (dive).

You should pay close attention to the strength of the trends, because vocabulary points will be most appreciated when you use the most accurate words.

Take a look at a chart below:

This chart has a clear uptrend, but there are two types of gains, slow and fast. It can be seen that before 1985, national recycling rates inched up very slowly, but after this year, the increase was very strong.

So we can write:

Overall, total waste recovery increased. From 1985, it skyrocketed.

Other spelling
If you notice, the words given above are all verbs. So, when using these words, we will often write S + V sentences like:

A + increase / decrease / fall / rise / …

This style of writing is completely OK, but in IELTS, besides dividing the correct verb, if we show many different sentence patterns, the grammar of the article will be more appreciated. So is there any way we can describe an increase / decrease without verbs?

The simplest way is to use the nouns of the verbs above. Some of the verbs above have noun forms, and the great thing is that their noun forms are written exactly like the verb form. For example, you have:

Rise => a rise

Fall => a fall

Drop => a drop

But how to use these nouns? Obviously, all sentences in English have verbs. So what verb are we going to use?

Please write the following form:

A + experience + a rise / a fall / a drop …

So, the sentence above that we wrote:

Overall, total waste recovery increased. From 1985, it skyrocketed.

Can be rewritten to:

Overall, total waste recovery experienced an increase.

Please note that not all words can be converted into nouns. You should only use the structure “experience + nouns” with the words: rise / fall / drop and increase / decrease.

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Unit 2: Writing Task 1 – How to paraphrase thread in Writing Task 1

How to paraphrase thread in Writng Task 1

Paraphrase is a very useful and necessary skill, because in both Task 1 and Task 2, you need to paraphrase the opening sentence. This is especially easy in Task 1 because at the beginning of the lesson you can immediately navigate the small parts to paraphrase.

Basically, the steps to paraphrase 1 at the beginning of Task 1 are as follows:

Step 1: show = give information about = illustrate = demonstrated

Step 2: If the title says “the chart” then write more specificly, becoming “the first chart” or “the bar chart”

Step 3: If the board has many different “objects”, you should specify how many objects.

Example of speech:

The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain.

See my underlined part? Please write down what the fast foods are. I look at the chart there are 3 types of fast foods so I will rewrite them: 3 different types of fast foods.

Step 4: Quantitative words like amount, number, population, percentage turn into how many / how much and vice versa.

Step 5: If you have a number of years (for example, 1900 – 2015), you can write from 1900 to 2015, or use the very dangerous phrase over the course of 115 years starting from 1900.

So the following we have to paraphrase:

– from “show”

– from “chart”

– common noun

– amount

– time

Let’s paraphrase some threads, for example, paraphrase the problem above first:

The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain.

=> The bar graph ILLUSTRATES how much money people in Britain spent per week on 3 different types of fast food.

I just paraphrase 4 parts as mentioned above, it’s simple right? Do some more examples for familiar hands:

1) The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the costs of adult education should be shared.

=> The bar graph demonstrates 7 different reasons why adults pursue education at their age.

=> The second chart shows how the surveyees think their education expenses should be allocated.

2) The table below shows the consumer durables (telephone, refrigerator, etc.) owned in Britain from 1972 to 1983.

=> The table illustrates the ownership rate of different home appliances in Britain over the course of 11 years starting from 1972.

This has to be explained a little bit. When I read the term consumer durables, I didn’t understand what it was, never seen it. But looking at the list, you can see the fridge, TV, washing machine, etc. so it’s similar to home appliances.

Many of you wonder what the ownership rate is like this. In the table it shows how many% of households own each of the listed items, so I spawned the ownership rate cluster. If you want to look more closely, you can write the changes in ownership rate, because every time period has changed.

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Unit 1: Complete Writing Task 1 Structure in IELTS Test

Complete Writing Task 1 Structure

The soul of the Writing section can be said to be in the Task 2 Section. Saying that doesn’t mean you can leave the “blank” part of Task 1. However, a lot of you spend too much time on Task 1. , which takes 30-40 minutes, leads to Task 2 writing very poorly, although Task 2 is much longer. To avoid this, you need to know the complete layout of Task 1 to write quickly and accurately and spend a lot of time on Task 2.

In Task 1, there are two main forms: charts and … not charts (processes – maps or maps). The diagram is related to the numbers and their ups and downs, the process is clearly focused on the steps, the sequence, and finally, the map has a focus on the description, usually a description of the change. over the years of an area.

1. Chart form

The chart format is the easiest to write of the three types, and fortunately, this is the most frequently proposed format in Task 1. To write a chart, you need to follow these steps:

Paragraph 1 (1 sentence): Paraphrase (rewritten in a different way) first sentence (this table shows / this graph shows …)

Paragraph 2 (1-2 sentences): Write a general comment (what first caught my eye)

Paragraph 3: Write descriptive sentences from largest to smallest.

– No conclusion.

You may notice that there are many numbers in the chart, but we will not describe them all, we will just say what stands out. If the lesson has 2 charts, we will describe them one by one in order. Perhaps these two charts are related to each other (2 different years of the same data), or 2 completely independent data types. If they are relevant, when writing the second one, remember to compare.

2. Process type.

The process format is fairly easy to write, and sometimes easier than the chart format if you know how to write:

Paragraph 1 (1 sentence): Paraphrase again deals (similar to the chart)

Paragraph 2 (2 sentences): Overview of what this process starts with and ends with.

Paragraph 3: Describe each process and lead it by sequence words. The easiest of the earth is to follow the style (Firstly, Secondly, Next, Then, … Finally)

Paragraph 4: You can write all the procedures into a paragraph like paragraph 3, or separate a fourth paragraph to talk about the final process.

Notice that in the form of a procedure, all you need to write is given in the diagram. You just need to diversify it by writing active / passive sentences.

3. Map form

Similar to diagrams and processes, you must always write the first 2 paragraphs as follows:

Paragraph 1 (1 sentence): Paraphrase again examines (What does this map draw)

Paragraph 2 (2 sentences): Describe the most pronounced changes on the map

The body of the card is where the map is different from the two above. In this section, you need to describe the changes on the map. The easiest way is to follow the year, from the earliest years to the most recent years: which one has more, which one loses.

Paragraph 3-4: Describe in detail the changes from year to year. The number of paragraphs can be 1-3 short paragraphs, however, in this article we should only write 2 body paragraphs, ie 4 paragraphs of the whole article is sufficient. The maps do not have too many things to describe, so writing many paragraphs will look very thin.

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IELTS Listening Practice Test 02 from

IELTS listening practice test 02

SECTION 1 Questions 1-10 

Questions 1-8

Complete the form below.


Five-Star Caterers

Customer Booking Form



Customer name: Mr 1 ____________________________
Daytime telephone number: 2 ____________________________
Telephone number after 5 pm: As above (If no one answers,

3 ____________________________)

Number of guests: 4
Date: 5____________________________
Shape: 6____________________________
Size: 7____________________________
Number of tables: 8____________________________

Questions 9 and 10

Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

9    The man decides to book 

A. a three-course meal

B. a buffet.

C. a banquet.

10    The man will have to pay 

A. £750 tomorrow.

B. £100 per head.

C. £1,500 on the day of the party.

SECTION 2 Questions 11 – 20

Questions 11 – 17

According to the speaker, when did the following happen?

Write the correct letter A, B or C, next to Questions 11-17.

A before 1837

B between 1837 and 1900 

C after 1900

11    The East Front was added to the building.____________________

12    The last big structural change was made.____________________

13    The building was bombed.____________________

14    The building became a palace.____________________

15    The building was known as The Queens House.____________________

16    The Houses of Parliament were destroyed by fire.____________________

17    The Marble Arch was moved.____________________

Questions 18-20

Complete the sentences below.


18    Up to_______________people    attend garden parties at the palace each year.

19 The garden contains more than_____________species of wild flower.

20    The public can visit the nineteen______________in    August or September.

SECTION 3 Questions 21 – 30

Questions 21 – 24

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

21. What aspect of history is it important to learn something from?


22. What do we also need to know about our ancestors?


23. Where are transferable skills useful?


24. What kind of approach to learning does social science use?


Questions 25-30

What is said about each of these subjects studied on a social studies course?

Choose your answers from the box and write the letters A-H next to Questions 25-30.

A. This will focus on how each generation learns about its own culture.

B. This necessarily includes a study of physics and chemistry.

C. This is studied from the point of view of human behaviour.

D. This will only be covered in terms of its theory.

E. This also covers the distribution of wealth.

F. This includes the study of archaeology.

G. This has received criticism for not being scientific enough.

H. This includes some work on urban planning.

25    Anthropology _____________________

26    Economics _____________________

27    Education_____________________

28    Geography_____________________

29    Law_____________________

30    Sociology and social work_____________________

SECTION 4 Questions 31 -40 

Questions 31-37

Choose the correct letter. A, B or C.

31    Students should complete their work on the 1950s

A. if they want to be allowed to continue attending lectures.

B. because they will appreciate the information about the 1960s more.

C. otherwise they face the possibility of being failed for their coursework.

32    According to the lecturer, the ‘baby boom’ happened 

A. because of relaxed attitudes in the sixties.

B. during a time of war.

C. because people felt more secure.

33    In the sixties, the USA had 70 million 

A. teenagers.

B. babies.

C. adults.

34    According to the lecturer, compared to the 1950s, the 1960s were 

A. less conservative.

B. more conservative.

C. just as conservative.

35    According to the lecturer, literature changed the way women 

A. over 40 were treated by society.

B. viewed issues of race in society.

C felt about their roles in society.

36    The rate of crime in the sixties 

A. rose nine per cent during the decade.

B. was nine times higher than in the fifties.

C. was nine times lower than in the fifties.

37    What happened at the start of the 1960s?

A. the first heart transplant 

B. the introduction of the internet 

C. the invention of lasers

Questions 38 – 40

Complete the summary letter

Write no more than two words for each answer.

In October 1962, US President Kennedy met advisers to discuss 38_____________which    proved that the Cubans were installing nuclear missiles, presumably to use against the US. Kennedy was faced with three choices: to try to resolve the crisis diplomatically; to block the delivery of further weapons into Cuba; or to attack Cuba. Kennedy chose 39__________option,    which prevented the build-up of more missiles and led to the withdrawal of the existing ones. Most are agreed that a 40_______________was narrowly avoided by Kennedy’s decision.

Answer Keys & Explanation Here:

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IELTS Reading Practice Test 04 from

ielts reading practice test 04 from


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

The Peal

A. Long known as the “Queen of Gems”, pearls possess a history and allure far beyond what today’s wearer may recognize. Throughout much of recorded history, a natural pearl necklace comprised of matched spheres was a treasure of almost incomparable value, in fact the most expensive jewelry in the world. Before the creation of cultured pearls in the early 1900s, natural pearls were so rare and expensive that they were reserved almost exclusively for the noble and very rich. The ancient Egyptians were particularly fond of their pearls. Many Egyptian leaders treasured pearls so much that they were often buried along with their cherished pearl collection. In the Orient and Persian Empire, pearls were ground into costly powders to cure anything from heart disease to epilepsy, with possible aphrodisiac uses as well. China’s long recorded history also provides ample evidence of the importance of pearls.

B. Pearls usually fall into three categories—natural pearls, cultured pearls and simulated pearls. A natural pearl forms when an irritant, such as a piece of sand, works its way into a particular species of oyster, mussel, or clam. As a defense mechanism, the mollusk secretes a fluid to coat the irritant. Layer upon layer of this coating is deposited on the irritant until a lustrous pearl is formed. A cultured pearl undergoes the same process. The only difference between natural pearls and cultured pearls is that the irritant is a surgically implanted bead or piece of shell called Mother of Pearl. Often, these shells are ground oyster shells that are worth significant amounts of money in their own right as irritant-catalysts for quality pearls. The resulting core is much larger than in a natural pearl. Imitation pearls are a different story altogether. In most cases, a glass bead is dipped into a solution made from fish scales. This coating is thin and may eventually wear off. One can usually tell an imitation by biting on it. The island of Mallorca in Spain is known for its imitation pearl industry.

C. Regardless of the method used to acquire a pearl, the process usually takes several years. Mussels must reach a mature age, which can take up to 3 years, and then be implanted or naturally receive an irritant. Once the irritant is in place, it can take up to another 3 years for the pearl to reach its full size. Often, the irritant may be rejected, the pearl will be terrifically misshapen, or the oyster may simply die from disease or countless other complications. By the end of a 5 to 10 year cycle, only 50% of the oysters will have survived. And of the pearls produced, only approximately 5% are of a quality substantial enough for top jewelry makers.

D. How can untrained eyes determine a pearl’s worth? Luster and size are generally considered the two main factors to look for. Luster for instance, depends on the fineness and evenness of the layers. The deeper the glow, the more perfect the shape and surface, the more valuable they are. Size on the other hand, has to do with the age of the oyster that created the pearl (the more mature oysters produce larger pearls) and the location in which the pearl was cultured. The South Sea waters of Australia tend to produce the larger pearls; probably because the water along the coast line is supplied with rich nutrients from the ocean floor. Also, the type of mussel being common to the area seems to possess a predilection for producing comparatively large pearls.

E. In general, cultured pearls are less valuable than natural pearls, whereas imitation pearls almost have no value. One way that jewelers can determine whether a pearl is cultured or natural is to have a gem lab perform an X-ray of the pearl. If the X-ray reveals a nucleus, the pearl is likely a bead nucleated saltwater pearl. If no nucleus is present, but irregular and small dark inner spots indicating a cavity are visible, combined with concentric rings of organic substance, the pearl is likely a cultured freshwater. Among cultured pearls, Akoya pearls from Japan are some of the most lustrous. Although imitation pearls look the part, they do not have the same weight or smoothness as real pearls, and their luster will also dim greatly.

F. Historically, the world’s best pearls came from the Persian Gulf, especially around what is now Bahrain. The pearls of the Persian Gulf were naturally created and collected by breath-hold divers. Unfortunately, the natural pearl industry of the Persian Gulf ended abruptly in the early 1930’s with the discovery of large deposits of oil. The water pollution resulting from spilled oil and indiscriminate over-fishing of oysters essentially ruined the pristine waters of the Gulf once producing pearls. Still, Bahrain remains one of the foremost trading centers for high quality pearls. In fact, cultured pearls are banned from the Bahrain pearl market, in an effort to preserve the location’s heritage. Nowadays, the largest stock of natural pearls probably resides in India. Ironically, much of India’s stock of natural pearls came originally from Bahrain. Unlike Bahrain, which has essentially lost its pearl resource, traditional pearl fishing is still practiced on a small scale in India.

G. Pearls also come in many colours. The most popular colours are white, cream, and pink. Silver, black, and gold are also gaining increasing interest. In fact, a deep lustrous black pearl is one of the rarest finds in the pearling industry, usually only being found in the South Sea near Australia. Thus, they can be one of the more costly items. Nowadays, pearls predominately come from Japan, Australia, Indonesia, Myanmar, China, India, the Philippines, and Tahiti. Japan, however, controls roughly 80% of the world pearl market, with Australia and China coming in second and third, respectively.

Questions 1 – 4

Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A—G.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A—G in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.

1. difficulties in cultivating process

2. causes affecting the size of natural pearls

3. ancient customs around pearls

4. distinctions between cultured pearls and natural ones

Questions 5-10

Complete the summary below. Choose letter from A—K for each answer. Write them in boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet.

Throughout history, people in 5 …………………used pearls for medicine and philtres. There are essentially three types of pearls: natural, cultured and imitation. Natural and cultured pearls share a similar growing process, while imitation pearls are different. And 6 ……………….. owns the reputation for its imitation pearl industry. The country 7………………..usually produces the larger sized pearls due to the favourable environment along the coast line, while the nation of 8………………..manufactures some of the most listening cultured pearls. In the past, the country 9 ……………… the Persian Gulf, produced the world’s best pearls. At present, the major remaining suppliers of natural pearls are in 10…………………

A. America

B. Philippines

C. Australia

D. Bahrain

E. China

F. Japan

G. India

H. Egypt

I. Myanmar

J. Persia

K. Mallorca

Questions 11 – 13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

11. A cultured pearl’s centre is often significantly larger than that in a natural pearl.

12. Imitation pearls are usually the same price as natural ones.

13. The size of pearls produced in Japan is surely smaller than those from Australia.


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Questions 14-19

Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for paragraph A—C and from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i. The subconscious nature of gestures

ii. The example of regional differences

iii. The key factors of gestures

iv. Sending out important signals

v. How a well-known gesture loses its meaning

vi. Performance in a specific setting

vii. Recent research of Gesture Variant

viii. Comparison to an everyday-use object

ix. How will conflict be handled

x. Individual deviation of cultural norms

14. Paragraph A

15. Paragraph B

16. Paragraph C

Example Answer

Paragraph D                      i

17. Paragraph E

18. Paragraph F

19. Paragraph G


A. gesture is any action that sends a visual signal to an onlooker. To become a gesture, an act has to be seen by someone else and has to communicate some pieces of information to them. It can do this either because the gesturer deliberately sets out to send a signal or it can do it only incidentally. The hand-wave is a Primary Gesture,because it has no other existence or function. Therefore, to make it a gesture, first, it should be clear and unambiguous. Others would be able to understand it instantly when it is shown to them. Nor may any component of a gesture, its force, its direction and amplitude of movement, be altered: otherwise, confusion or misunderstanding may occur.

B. Most people tend to limit their use of the term “gesture” to the primary form the hand-wave type—but this misses an important point. What matters with gesturing is not what signals we think we are sending out, but what signals are being received. The observers of our acts will make no distinction between our intentional primary gestures and our unintentional, incidental ones. This is why it is preferable to use the term “gesture” in its wider meaning as an “observed action”. This can be compared to the ring of a telephone. The speed, tone and intensity of a telephone remain the same for any phone call. Even the length of time before being told that the number you are dialing is not answering, unless the caller hangs up, is the same.

C. Some gestures people use are universal. The shoulder shrug is a case in point. The shrug is done by bringing the shoulders up, drawing the head in, and turning the palms upwards so as to reveal that nothing is hidden. The shoulder shrug can also demonstrate submission or that what is being said isn’t understood. Another example is that an angry person usually expresses his rage by waving his clenched fist rapidly and forcefully. Surprisingly, you may find that people of different cultures will do the same when they are offended. That is to say, a commonly accepted gesture is shared by them. But if the way the hand is clenched changes, or the amplitude of force and the direction the fist is waved alters, the gesture no longer means the same.

D. So, is gesture born with us or is it developed as we grow up? Recent research found that gesture is more like a spontaneous reaction when we face certain situations. And we just do that automatically. When people talk, they almost always gesture with their hands. This expressive movement can be coaxed into a choreographic form if observed carefully. People can practice spontaneous gesture by forming pairs, then observing and questioning each other. They then show the group what they have collected from their partners. It is fun to surprise a group using this technique. Because spontaneous gestures are often unconscious, people will sometimes be surprised to have their gestures mirrored back to them, saying “Did I really do that?”

E. The attention of research was also drawn to cultural themes. Researchers discovered that if a person has a good set of teeth, he or she would be prone to have a bigger smile than he or she should when good things happen. And if a person possesses a bad set of teeth, he or she would tend to have his or her mouth shut when being teased. And people’s reaction to the same joke also varies: some laugh out loud while others titter. However, this does not cause confusion and it helps to develop our “behavioural”, which is an important aspect of our identity. It was referred to as a Gesture Variant, which indicates that individuals’ gesture production is a complex process, in which speakers’ internal and external factors and interactions could play a role in multi-modal communication.

F. During the research, an interesting phenomenon soon caught researchers’ attention. A hand purse gesture, which is formed by straightening the fingers and thumb of one hand and bringing them together so the tips touch, pointing upwards and shaping like a cone, carries different meanings in different countries. In Malta, it means heavy sarcasm: “you may seem good, but you are really bad.”; in Tunisia, it is against recklessness, saying “slow down”; in Italy, it means “What’s the matter?” or “What are you trying to say?”; in France, it means “I am afraid”. However, this gesture has no clear meaning in American culture. And of course, the way the gesture is conducted is similar in different countries.

G. But what will happen if the gestures of different countries confront each other? The situation is further complicated by the fact that some gestures mean totally different things in different countries. To take one example, in Saudi Arabia, stupidity can be signalled by touching the lower eyelid with the tip of the forefinger. But this same gesture, in various other countries, can mean disbelief, approval, agreement, mistrust, scepticism, alertness, secrecy, craftiness, danger, or criminality. So people are faced with two basic problems where certain gestures are concerned: either one meaning may be signalled by different actions, or several meanings may be signalled by the same action, as we move from culture to culture. The only solution is to approach each culture with an open mind and learn their gestures as one would learn their vocabulary. These all require considerable skill and training and belong in a totally different world from the familiar gestures we employ in everyday life.

Questions 20 – 22

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 20—22 on your answer sheet.

20 According to the passage, which aspect of the ringing of a telephone is compared with gestures?

A. The length of the ringing.

B. The unchanging sound of the ringing.

C. The telephone ringing intrudes upon our life.

D. The speed of ringing signals the urgency.

21 Which of the diagrams below shows the gesture “Hand Purse”?

22 In which country should the gesture “Hand Purse” be used with caution?

A. Malta

B. Tusinia

C. Italy

D. France

Questions 23 – 25

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 23-25 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

23. Angry people are often in the same age range or group.

24. Personal physical characteristics may affect the gesture used.

25. A Gesture Variant can still be understood by the members of the same culture.

Question 26

According to the passage, what is the writer’s purpose in writing this passage?

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D

Write you answer in box 26 on your answer sheet.

A. to clarify the origin of gesture-based communication

B. to promote the worldwide use of gestures

C. to investigate whether gesture use affects information content

D. to explain the concept of gesture


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Grimm’s Fairy Tales

The Brothers Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, named their story collection Children’s and Household Tales and published the first of its seven editions in Germany in 1812. The table of contents reads like an A-list of fairy-tale celebrities: Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, Rapunzel, Rumpelstiltskin, Hansel and Gretel, the Frog King. Drawn mostly from oral narratives, the 210 stories in the Grimms’ collection represent an anthology of fairy tales, animal fables, rustic farces, and religious allegories that remain unrivalled to this day.

Such lasting fame would have shocked the humble Grimms. During their lifetimes the collection sold modestly in Germany, at first only a few hundred copies a year. The early editions were not even aimed at children. The brothers initially refused to consider illustrations, and scholarly footnotes took up almost as much space as the tales themselves. Jacob and Wilhelm viewed themselves as patriotic folklorists, not as entertainers of children. They began their work at a time when Germany had been overrun by the French under Napoleon, who were intent on suppressing local culture. As young, workaholic scholars, single and sharing a cramped flat, the Brothers Grimm undertook the fairy-tale collection with the goal of saving the endangered oral tradition of Germany.

For much of the 19th century teachers, parents, and religious figures, particularly in the United States, depiored the Grimms’ collection for its raw, uncivilized content. Offended adults objected to the gruesome punishments inflicted on the stories’ villains. In the original “Snow White” the evil stepmother is forced to dance in red-hot iron shoes until she falls down dead. Even today some protective parents shy from the Grimms’ tales because of their reputation for violence.

Despite its sometimes rocky reception, Children’s and Household Tales gradually took root with the public. The brothers had not foreseen that the appearance of their work would coincide with a great flowering of children’s literature in Europe. English publishers led the way, issuing high-quality picture books such as Jack and the Beanstalk and handsome folktale collections, all to satisfy a newly literate audience seeking virtuous material for the nursery. Once the Brothers Grimm sighted this new public, they set about refining and softening their tales, which had originated centuries earlier as earthy peasant fare. In the Grimms’ hands, cruel mothers became nasty stepmothers, unmarried lovers were made chaste, and the incestuous father was recast as the devil.

In the 20th century the Grimms’ fairy tales have come to rule the bookshelves of children’s bedrooms. The stories read like dreams come true: handsome lads and beautiful damsels, armed with magic, triumph over giants and witches and wild beasts. They outwit mean, selfish adults. Inevitably the boy and girl fall in love and live happily ever after. And parents keep reading because they approve of the finger-wagging lessons inserted into the stories: keep your promises, don’t talk to strangers, work hard, obey your parents. According to the Grimms, the collection served as “a manual of manners”.

Altogether some 40 persons delivered tales to the Grimms. Many of the storytellers came to the Grimms’ house in Kassel. The brothers particularly welcomed the visits of Dorothea Viehmann, a widow who walked to town to sell produce from her garden. An innkeeper’s daughter, Viehmann had grown up listening to stories from travellers on the road to Frankfurt. Among her treasures was “Aschenputtel”—Cinderella. Marie Hassenpflug was a 20-year-old friend of their sister, Charlotte, from a well-bred, French-speaking family. Marie’s wonderful stories blended motifs from the oral tradition and from Perrault’s influential 1697 book, Tales of My Mother Goose, which contained elaborate versions of “Little Red Riding Hood”, “Snow White”, and “Sleeping Beauty”, among others. Many of these had been adapted from earlier Italian fairy tales.

Given that the origins of many of the Grimm fairy tales reach throughout Europe and into the Middle East and Orient, the question must be asked: How German are the Grimm tales? Very, says scholar Heinz Rolleke. Love of the underdog, rustic simplicity, creative energy—these are Teutonic traits. The coarse texture of life during medieval times in Germany, when many of the tales entered the oral tradition, also coloured the narratives. Throughout Europe children were often neglected and abandoned, like Hansel and Gretel. Accused witches were burned at the stake, like the evil mother-inlaw in “The Six Swans”. “The cruelty in the stories was not the Grimms’ fantasy”, Rolleke points out. “It reflected the law-and-order system of the old times”.

The editorial fingerprints left by the Grimms betray the specific values of 19th-century Christian, bourgeois German society. But that has not stopped the tales from being embraced by almost every culture and nationality in the world. What accounts for this widespread, enduring popularity? Bernhard Lauer points to the “universal style” of the writing. “You have no concrete descriptions of the land, or the clothes, or the forest, or the castles. It makes the stories timeless and placeless.” “The tales allow us to express ‘our utopian longings’,” says lack Zipes of the University of Minnesota, whose 1987 translation of the complete fairy tales captures the rustic vigour of the original text. “They show a striving for happiness that none of us knows but that we sense is possible. We can identify with the heroes of the tales and become in our mind the masters and mistresses of our own destinies. “

Fairy tales proynde a workout for the unconscious, psychoanalysts maintain. Bruno Bettelheim famously promoted the therapeutic value of the Grimms’ stories, calling fairy tales the “great comforters”. By confronting fears and phobias, symbolized by witches, heartless stepmothers, and hungry wolves, children find they can master their anxieties. Bettelheim’s theory continues to be hotly debated. But most young readers aren’t interested in exercising their unconsciousness. The Grimm tales in fact please in an infinite number of ways. Something about them seems to mirror whatever moods or interests we bring to our reading of them. This flexibility of interpretation suits them for almost any time and any culture.

Questions 27 – 32

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 2 7-32 on your answer sheet, write

YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say that the writer thinks about this

27. The Grimm brothers believed they would achieve international fame.

28. The Grimm brothers were forced to work in secret.

29. Some parents today still think Grimm’s fairy tales are not suitable for children.

30. The first edition of Grimm’s fairy tales sold more widely in England than in Germany.

31. Adults like reading Grimm’s fairy tales for reasons different from those of children.

32. The Grimm brothers based the story “Cinderella” on the life of Dorothea Viehmann.

Questions 33 – 35

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 33-35 on your answer sheet.

33, In paragraph 4, what changes happened at that time in Europe?

A. Literacy levels of the population increased.

B. The development of printing technology made it easier to publish.

C. Schools were open to children.

D. People were fond of colleting superb picture books.

34 What changes did the Grimm Brothers make in later editions?

A. They made the stories shorter.

B. They used more oral language.

C. The content of the tales became less violent.

D. They found other origins of the tales.

35 What did Marie Hassenpflug contribute to the Grimm’s Fairy tales?

A. She wrote stories.

B. She discussed the stories with them.

C. She translated a popular book for the brothers using her talent for languages.

D. She told the oral stories that were based on traditional Italian stories.

Questions 36 – 40

Complete each sentence with correct ending, A—H, below.

Write the correct letter, A—H, in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.

36 Heinz Rolleke said the Grimm’s tales are “German” because the tales

37 Heinz Rolleke said the abandoned children in tales

38 Bernhard Lauer said the writing style of the Grimm brothers is universal because they

39 Jack Zipes said the pursuit of happiness in the tales means they

40 Bruno Bettelheim said the therapeutic value of the tales means that the fairy tales

A. reflect what life was like at that time.

B. help children deal with their problems.

C. demonstrate the outdated system.

D. tell of the simplicity of life in the German countryside.

E. encourage people to believe that they can do anything.

F. recognize the heroes in the real life.

G. contribute to the belief in nature power.

H. avoid details about characters’ social settings.

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IELTS Reading Practice Test 03 from

IELTS Listening Practice Test 03 from


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.


A bovid is any member of almost 140 species of ungulates belonging to the family Bovidae. The bovids are the largest family of hoofed mammals and are native to Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America. Members include antelope, bison, buffalo, cattle, sheep and goats. Bovids have mutually beneficial symbiotic relationships with bacteria and other microorganisms that allow the digestion of cellulose, the most abundant form of living terrestrial biomass, but one that is indigestible for many animals, including humans.

Bovids are not so common in endemic insular faunas and are mainly recorded in Southeast Asia, Japan and some Mediterranean islands. Ely the late Miocene, the bovids rapidly diversified, leading to the creation of 70 new genera. This late Miocene radiation was partly because most bovids became adapted to more open, grassland habitats. Some species of bovid are solitary, but others live in large groups with complex social structures.

All bovids have the similar basic form—a snout with a blunt end, one or more pairs of horns immediately after the oval or pointed ears, a distinct neck and and a tail varying in length and bushiness among the species. However, the bovids show great variation in size: the gaur can weigh as much as 1,000kg and stands 2-3m high at the shoulder. The royal antelope, at the opposite extreme, is only 25cm tall and weighs at most 3kg.

Despite differences in size and appearance, bovids are united by the possession of certain common features. Being ruminants, the stomach is composed of four chambers: the rumen (80%), the omasum, the reticulum, and the abomasum. Bovids retain undigested food in their stomachs to be regurgitated and chewed again as necessary Bovids are almost exclusively herbivorous. Most bovids bear 30 to 32 teeth. While the upper incisors are absent, the upper canines are either reduced or absent. Instead of the upper incisors,bovids have a thick and tough layer of tissue, called the dental pad, which provides a surface to grip grasses and foliage. All bovids have four toes on each foot—they walk on the central two (the hooves), while the outer two (the dewclaws) are much smaller and rarely touch the ground. Bovid horns vary in shape and size: the relatively simple horns of a large Indian buffalo may measure around 4m from tip to tip along the outer curve, while the various gazelles have horns with a variety of elegant curves.

Bovids are the largest of 10 extant families within Artiodactyla, consisting of more than 140 extant and 300 extinct species. Fossil evidence suggests five distinct subfamilies: Bovinae (bison, buffalos, cattle, and relatives). Antelope (addax, oryxes, roan antelopes and relatives), Caprinae (chamois, goats, sheep, and relatives), Cephalophinae (duikers), and Antilocapridae (pronghorn). Unlike most other bovids, Bovinae species are ail non-territorial. As the ancestors of the various species of domestic cattle, banteng, gaur, yak and water buffalo are generally rare and endangered in the wild, while another ancestor, auroch, has been extinct in the wild for nearly 300 years.

Antelope is not a cladistic or taxonomically defined group. The term is used to describe all members of the family Bovidae that do not fall under the category of , cattle, or goats. Not surprisingly for animals with long, slender yet powerful legs, many antelopes have long strides and can run fast. There are two main sub-groups of antelope: Hippotraginae, which includes the oryx and the addax, and Antilopinae, which generally contains slighter and more graceful animals such as gazelle and the springbok. The antelope is found in a wide range of habitats, typically woodland, forest, savannah, grassland plains, and marshes. Several species of antelope have adapted to living in the mountains and rocky outcrops and a couple of species of antelope are even semi-aquatic and these antelope live in swamps, for instance, the sitatunga has long, splayed hooves that enable it to walk freely and rapidly on swampy ground.

Subfamily Caprinae consists of mostly medium-sized bovids. Its members are commonly referred to as the sheep and the goat, together with various relatives such as the goral and the tahr. The group did not reach its greatest diversity until the recent ice ages, when many of its members became specialised for marginal, often extreme, environments: mountains, deserts, and the subarctic region. Barbary and bighorn sheep have been found in arid deserts, while Rocky Mountain sheep survive high up in mountains and musk oxen in arctic tundra.

The duiker, belonging to Cephalophinae sub-family is a small to medium-sized species, brown in colour, and native to sub-Saharan Africa. Duikers are primarily browsers rather than grazers, eating leaves, shoots, seeds, fruit buds and bark. Some duikers consume insects and carrion (dead animal carcasses) from time to time and even manage to capture rodents or small birds.

The pronghorn is the only living member of the sub-family Antilocapridae in North America. Each “horn” of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone that grows from the frontal bones of the skull, forming a permanent core. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath possessing a forward-pointing tine (hence the name pronghorn). The pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, being built for maximum predator evasion through running. Additionally, pronghorn hooves have two long, cushioned, pointed toes which help absorb shock when running at high speeds.

Questions 1 -3

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

1 Bovids mostly inhabit

A. Africa.

B. Eurasia.

C. Southeast Asia.

D. South America.

2 What are the most favorable locations for the existence of bovids?

A. tropical forests

B. wetlands

C. mountains

D. open grassy areas

3 What is the common feature of idle bovid species?

A. Their horns are short.

B. They store food in the body.

C. They have upper incisors.

D. Their hooves are undivided.

Questions 4 – 8

Look at the following characteristics (Questions and the list of sub-families below.

Match each characteristics with the correct ;

Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 4-8 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

4. can survive in harsh habitats.

5. move at a high speed.

6. origins of modern ox and cow.

7. does not defend a particular area of land.

8. sometimes take small animals as their food supply.

A. Bovinae

B. Antelope

C. Caprinae

D. Cephalophinae

Questions 9-13

Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

9. What is the smallest species of Bovids?

10. Which member of Bovinae has died out?

11. What helps sitatunga move quickly on swampy lands?

12. Where can Barbary sheep survive?

13. What is the only survivor of Antilocapridae?



You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

The contribution of language to business

People say that business is all about relationships, but the truth is that business is really all about language communication. Languages make either a direct or indirect contribution to business and industry—from acquiring and retaining customers to improving employee engagement and performance. At the most fundamental level, business cannot happen without communication. This is even more true in the era of globalization. As geographic borders become porous and the world flattens, effective communication with customers, employees, partners, suppliers, and other stakeholders across the globe becomes essential to successfully running a company.

There is no universal agreement on how significant the language factor is; nor the degree of language proficiency in contribution to the success of business and industry. In large modern enterprises, people have the unique experience of working with thousands of organizations across different industries and sectors that are tackling this very problem. Companies adjust to these demographic, cultural, and economic trends and proactively build workforces with the skills and capabilities needed to grow and thrive in this multicultural and international economy. Although the combination of business functions and processes impacted by improved communication may vary from company to company, language skills consistently deliver tangible business value and results for organizations that invest in language training.

Although English is dominant for international transactions, many business people also think and deal in scores of languages. Companies that operate solely in English will miss opportunities to capitalize on the explosive growth in developing and untapped markets at home and abroad. These companies also run the risk of misunderstandings with customers, and with members of an increasingly global workforce. Moreover, travellers on business need to have different levels of language proficiency. On a basic level, they are able to use the language at the airport and to check in at the hotel. Besides, they need a high language proficiency to deal with workers at their offshore factories.

One of the biggest business advantages of a workforce that can effectively communicate in more than one language is the ability to reach new markets—both at home and abroad. On the domestic side, for example, the U.S. has become even more of a melting pot than in the past, with minorities accounting for a greater proportion of the total population. Accordingly, in domestic venues, the consumer contacts and service activities also ask for workers with good skills of different languages, such as at restaurants or in duty-free stores.

The language proficiency needed to hold a conversation is quite different from that needed for negotiating. Receptionists and telephonists are the first point of contact between firms. The language proficiency they need is to gather basic factual information. Yet negotiating well in another language is one of the most difficult skills, especially nowadays when it is often done at a distance by videoconference, teleconference or email. It is also one of the most important things to do well, with usually a clear financial penalty for doing it badly. To really master the negotiating skill, negotiators need a thorough understanding of the very many phrases they might hear during a negotiation and an ability to show fine shades in meaning in their own contributions. Similar to negotiating, certain occupations like shipping, also require unbroken and detailed communication between officials.

When it comes to negotiation, the interpreters and translators are needed. Interpreters and translators aid communication by converting messages or text from one language into another language. Although some people do both, interpreting and translating are different professions: interpreters work with spoken communication, and translators work with written communication. The selection of interpreters and translators is critical. Both the loyalty and accuracy of the interpreters and translators must be put at the top of agenda. Thus, loyalty to the speaker and the original appears to be a hallmark of professionals more so than of amateurs.

Who can judge the performance of the interpreters? A person with language proficiency is needed in the negotiating team to check on the interpreters, guaranteeing the quality and accuracy of the interpretation. Listeners are presumably listening only to the output and as such not aware of the structure of the source speech. Only an experienced expert will understand the constraints of any given situation and be in a position to judge. Only she (or he) can assess just how the speed, density and complexity of the speech will affect interpretation in any particular language combination. And even this task is not easy: interpreters are trained to listen and speak at the same time, not to listen to two different audio streams. Therefore, the check-on is best accomplished by those trained to teach or with enough experience to have mastered this skill.

Businesses may ask help from local consultants who are responsible for hiring local workers or train company managers to deal with local consumers. That was the case with CommScope, a multibillion dollar telecom equipment manufacturer with customers, employees, and partners in 18 countries across the world. In the wake of these transactions, the company began offering Jacqueline K. Crofton, a local resident, language training to key employees and executives. The goal of the training was not to make employees fluent in the new language, as much as to give them a degree of functional proficiency. “In order to advance well in new markets and with new customers, we had to be able to at least understand and communicate at a basic level, even with the use of interpreters,” says David Hartsoe, manager of CommScope’s Global Learning Center. In the long run, effective communication will definitely help their employees stay positive and productive.

Questions 14 – 19

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet, write

YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say that the writer thinks about this

14. There are two types of contribution that languages make to business.

15. All businesses have recognized the importance of language to business.

16. English is the most important language for all business purposes.

17. Senior executives, especially, need to be fluent in the language of their trading partners.

18. Travellers on business need several different levels of language proficiency.

19. Some businesses provide interpreter training to their employees.

Questions 20-23

Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 20—23 on your answer sheet.

20. What level of language proficiency are the workers required in the duty-free stores?

21. Who are the first people the client usually have contact with in business?

22. Which industry is high language proficiency essential to?

23. What business are interpreters and translators needed for?

Questions 24 – 26

Choose the correct letter; A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

24 One of the most important qualities of the interpreter is

A. common sense.

B. industry knowledge and contacts.

C. appropriate reaction.

D. trustworthiness.

25 A qualified interpreter is essential to the business for

A. ensuring cultural appropriateness.

B. accuracy of information.

C. success in trading.

D. financial reasons.

26 In the writer’s opinion, hiring an indigenous person to improve the dialect language proficiency of the company staff is

A. unethical.

B. unlikely.

C. sensible.

D. expensive.



You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Agricultural and tourism

A. Agricultural tourism is a worldwide trend which offers city dwellers a chance to escape urban concrete and re-discover their rural roots. In addition, visiting farmers, agronomists and other agricultural experts can evaluate worldwide developments in agriculture, which have been greatly influenced by modern technology. Agriculture and tourism—two of Wisconsin’s most important industries—are teaming up in southwestern Wisconsin. A pilot project has found that tourists, rural communities, and some farmers could benefit from stronger efforts to promote and market agricultural tourism there. More than one-half of those surveyed responded favourably to a proposed tour, saying they would be interested in participating in some types of agricultural tour in southwestern Wisconsin.

B. In 1990, agricultural tourism project members surveyed 290 visitors to the annual Monroe Cheese Festival and 164 visitors to the Picnic on the Farm, a one-time event held in Platteville in conjunction with the Chicago Bears summer training camp. Survey respondents reported that they would prefer to visit cheese factories, sausage processing plants, dairy farms, and historical farm sites, as well as enjoy an oldfashioned picnic dinner. The study also found strong interest in visiting specialty farms (strawberries, cranberries, poultry, etc.). More than 7 5 percent of the Cheese Day visitors planned ahead for the trip, with 3 7 percent planning at least two months in advance. More than 40 percent of the visitors came to Monroe for two- or three-day visits. Many stopped at other communities on their way to Cheese Days. Visitors at both events indicated that they were there to enjoy themselves and were willing to spend money on food and arts and crafts. They also wanted the opportunity to experience the “country” while there.

C. The study found that planning around existing events should take into account what brought visitors to the area and provide additional attractions that will appeal to them. For example, visitors to Cheese Days said they were on a holiday and appeared to be more open to various tour proposals. Picnic visitors came specifically to see the Chicago Bears practice. They showed less interest in a proposed agricultural tour than Cheese Day visitors, but more interest in a picnic dinner. (The table below results from the 1990 survey of Monroe Cheese Days and Picnic on the Farm visitors and shows how the visitors would rank various activities in the proposed tour.)

Interest in specific activities in proposed tour


Cheese Days (Rank)

Picnic (Ran ‘

Cheese Factory Visit

1 2

Sausage Processing Visit

2 2

Dairy Farm Visit

3 5

Picnic Dinner

3 1

Historical Farm Visit

3 3

Crop Farm Visit

4 6


D. Agricultural tourism can serve to educate urban tourists about the problems and challenges facing farmers, says Andy Lewis, Grant county community development agent. While agriculture is vital to Wisconsin, more and more urban folk are becoming isolated from the industry. In fact, Lewis notes, farmers are just as interested in the educational aspects of agricultural tours as they are in any financial returns. “Farmers feel that urban consumers are out of touch with farming,” Lewis says. “If tourists can be educated on issues that concern farmers, those visits could lead to policies more favourable to agriculture.” Animal rights and the environment are examples of two issues that concern both urban consumers and farmers. Farm tours could help consumers get the farmer’s perspective on these issues, Lewis notes.

E. Several Wisconsin farms already offer some types of learning experience for tourists. However, most agricultural tourism enterprises currently market their businesses independently, leading to a lack of a concerted effort to promote agricultural tourism as an industry. Lewis is conducting the study with Jean Murphy, assistant community development agent. Other participants include UW-Platteville Agricultural Economist Bob Acton, the Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems, UWExtension Recreation Resources Center, the Wisconsin Rural Development Center, and Hidden Valleys, a Southwestern Wisconsin regional tourism organization.

F. This past fall, Murphy organized several workshops with some Green and Grant County farmers, local business leaders, and motor coach tour operators to discuss how best to organize and put on farm tours. Committees were formed to look at the following: tour site evaluations, inventory of the area’s resources, tour marketing, and familiarization of tours. The fourth committee is organizing tours for people such as tour bus guides and local reporters to help better educate them about agricultural tourism. Green County farmers already have experience hosting visitors during the annual Monroe Cheese Days. Green county Tourism Director Larry Lindgren says these farmers are set to go ahead with more formal agricultural tours next year. The tours will combine a farm visit with a visit to a local cheese factory and a picnic lunch.

G. Another farm interested in hosting an organized tour is Sinsinawa, a 200-acre Grant County farm devoted to sustainable agriculture and run by the Dominican Sisters. Education plays a major role at the farm, which has an orchard, dairy and beef cows, and hogs. Farm tours could be combined with other activities in the area such as trips to the Mississippi River and/or visits to historical towns or landmarks, Lewis says. The project will help expose farmers to the tourism industry and farm vacations as a way to possibly supplement incomes, he adds. While farm families probably wouldn’t make a lot of money through farm tours, they would be compensated for their time, says Lewis. Farmers could earn additional income through the sale of farm products, crafts, and recreational activities.

Questions 27 – 30

Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs A-G.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A—G in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.

27 Nearly half of all the surveyed tourists would spend several days in Monroe.

28 Most visitors responded positively to a survey project on farm tours.

29 Cooperation across organisations in research for agriculture tours has been carried out.

30 Agriculture tours help tourists understand more about zoological and ecological issues.

Questions 31-35

Which of the following statements belongs to the visitor categories in the box?

Please choose A, B or C for each statement.

Write the correct letter A, B or C, in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once

A. Cheese Festival visitors

B. Picnic visitors

C. Both of them

31. have a focused destination.

32. majority prepare well before going beforehand.

33. were comparably less keen on picnic meals.

34. show interest in activities such as visiting factories and fruit farms.

35. are willing to accept a variety of tour recommendations.

Questions 36 – 40

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 3, using the list of words, A-K, below.

Write the correct letter, A-K, in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.

Through farm tours, visitors can better understand significant issues such as 36……………….. and the environment. In autumn, Murphy organized 37………………..and brought other participants together to develop the local tour market. Larry Lindgren said that the farmers already had experience of organising farm tours that also included a visit to the factory and a 38…………………Sinsinawa, a large farm, which is managed and operated by 39……………….., contains an orchard, cows, etc. Lewis said the project would probably bring extra 40………………..for local farmers.

A. urban consumers

B. workshops

C. community development

D. income

E. animal rights

F. picnic

G. Dominican Sisters

H. historical towns

I. Andy Lewis

J. vacations

K. dairy

Answer Keys Here:

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IELTS Reading Practice Test 02 from

IELTS Listening Practice Test 02 from


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1~13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Bondi Beach

Bondi Beach is one of Australia’s most well-known beaches and among the world’s most famous. Bondi Beach is located in a suburb of Sydney, 7 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district. Bondi is said to be a corruption of an Aboriginal word boondi meaning water breaking over rocks. It has been spelt a number of different ways over time, e.g. Boondi, Bundi, Elundye. The Australian Museum records that Bondi means a place where a flight of nullas took place. The current spelling was accepted in 1827.

Aboriginal people occupied many sites in the area now known as Waverley in the period before European settlement. There v/ere numerous recorded sightings during the early colonial period and there are significant aboriginal rock carvings, including rough carvings of fish or fishes on the cliffs. The indigenous people of the area, at the time of European settlement, have generally been referred to as the Sydney people or the Eora, which means “the people”. There is no clear evidence for the name or names of the particular band or bands of the Eora that roamed what is now the Waverley area. A number of place names within Waverley, most famously Bondi, have been based on words derived from Aboriginal languages of the Sydney region.

Formal European settlement goes back to 1809, when the early road builder, William Roberts received a grant of 81 hectares from Governor Bligh, of what is now most of the business and residential area of Bondi Beach. In 1851, Edward Smith Hall and Francis O’Brien purchased 200 acres of the Bondi area that embraced almost the whole frontage of Bondi Beach. Between 1855 and 1877 O’Brien purchased Hall’s share of the land, renamed the land the “O’Brien Estate”, and made the beach and the surrounding land available to the public as a picnic ground and amusement resort. As the beach became increasingly popular, O’Brien threatened to stop public beach access. However, the Municipal Council believed that the Government needed to intervene to make the beach a public reserve. However it was not until June 9, 1882, that the NSW Government acted and Bondi Beach became a public beach.

In the early 1800s swimming at Sydney’s beaches was a controversial pastime. In 1803, Governor Philip King forbade convicts from bathing in Sydney Harbour because of “the dangers of sharks and stingrays, and for reasons of decorum”. But by the 1830s sea bathing was becoming a popular activity, despite being officially banned between 9:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m.. During the 1900s these restrictive attitudes began to relax and the beach became associated with health, leisure and democracy. Bondi Beach was a working class suburb throughout most of the twentieth century with migrant people comprising the majority of the local population. The first tramway reached the beach in 1884 and the tram became the first public transportation in Bondi. As an alternative, this action changed the rule that only wealthy people couÄd enjoy the beach. By the 1930s Bondi was drawing not only local visitors but also people from elsewhere in Australia and overseas.

The increasing popularity of sea bathing during the late 1800s and early 1900s raised concerns about public safety. In response, the world’s first formally documented surf lifesaving club, the Bondi Surf Bathers’ Life Saving Club was formed in February 1906, the first club house being a simple tent in the dunes. This was powerfully reinforced by the dramatic events of “Black Sunday” at Bondi in 1938. Some 35,000 people were on the beach and a large group of lifesavers were about to start a surf race when three freak waves hit the beach, sweeping hundreds of people out to sea. Lifesavers rescued 300 people, the largest mass rescue in the history of surf bathing.

Bondi Beach is the end point of the City to Surf Fun Run, the largest running event in the world, which is held each year in August. Australian surf carnivals further instilled this image. Particularly popuÄar during the inter-War years and immediately after World War ll, these displays of pageantry, discipline, strength and skill drew large crowds and even royal attention. A Royal Surf Carnival was held at Bondi Beach for Queen Elizabeth 11 during her first tour to Australia in 1954. In addition to many activities, Bondi Beach Market is open every Sunday. Many wealthy people spend Christmas Day at the beach. However, a shortage of houses occurs when lots of people rushed to the seaside. Manly is the seashore town which solved this problem. However, people still choose Bondi as their destination rather than Manly.

A commercial retail centre is separated from Bondi Beach by Campbell Parade, and Bondi Park, featuring many popuÄar cafes, restaurants, and hotels, with views of the beach. The valley running down to the beach is famous over the world for its view of distinctive red tiled roofs. These architectural styles are deeply influenced by the coastal towns in England. In the last decade, Bondi Beaches’ unique position has seen a dramatic rise in svelte contemporary houses and apartments to take advantage of the views and scent of the sea. Bondi Beach hosted the beach volleyball competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics. A temporary 10,000-seat stadium, a much smaller stadium, 2 warm-up courts, and 3 training courts were set up to host the tournament and only stood for six weeks. The stadium had uncovered seating around three sides, and a partly covered stand on one side. Campaigners opposed both the social and environmental consequences of the development. “They’re prepared to risk lives and risk the Bondi beach environment for the sake of eight days of volleyball”, said Stephen Uniacke, a construction lawyer involved in the campaign. Other environmental concerns include the possibility that soil dredged up from below the sand will acidify when brought to the surface.

Questions 1 – 5

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?

In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

1. Indigenous people learned rock carvings from the Europeans.

2. Bondi Beach was not a public gathering area at the beginning.

3. Sea bathing was considered to be beneficial for physical health during the early 1900s.

4. British coastal towns affect the building style in areas adjacent to Bondi Beach.

5. Bondi Beach was partly damaged due to the construction of the volleyball stadium.

Questions 6-9

Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND / OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 6—9 on your answer sheet.

6. Which public transport did people take to go to Bondi in the late 19th century?

7. When did British Royalty first go to Bondi?

8. What sort of Olympic sport was held in Bondi in 2000?

9. Apart from their social activities, what were local people worried might be ruined when the stadium was constructed?

Questions 10 – 13

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 10—13 on your answer sheet.

There ate all sorts of sport held at Bondi Beach every year, which attract lots of 10………… …… go there on their vacations. However, the accommodation is not sufficient and the nearby city 11………………..has become the supplementary. As a matter of fact, 12 ……………… still the best choice for residents. The buildings along the valley to Bondi are famous for their coloured 13………………..and their European style.



You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions, which are based on Re Passage 2 below.

Questions 14-18

Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A—G

Choose the correct heading for paragraph A, C—E and G from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number i—ix in boxes 14—18 on your answer sheet.

14. Paragraph A

Example Answer

Paragraph B iv

15. Paragraph C

16. Paragraph D

17. Paragraph E

Example                  Answer

Paragraph F             V

18. Paragraph G

List of Headings

i Remembering the past more clearly

ii Bringing back painful memories

iii Originally an alarm signal

iv The physical effects of scent versus image

v Checking unreliable evidence

vi Reinforcing one sense with another

vii Protection against reliving the past

viii The overriding power of sight and sound

ix Conflicting views

Follow your nose

A. Aromatherapy is the most widely used complementary therapy in the National Health Service, and doctors use it most often for treating dementia. For elderly patients who have difficulty interacting verbally, and to whom conventional medicine has little to offer, aromatherapy can bring benefits in terms of better sleep, improved motivation, and less disturbed behaviour. So the thinking goes. But last year, a systematic review of health care databases found almost no evidence that aromatherapy is effective in the treatment of dementia. Other findings suggest that aromatherapy works only if you believe it will. In fact, the only research that has unequivocally shown it to have an effect has been carried out on animals.

B. Behavioural studies have consistently shown that odours elicit emotional memories far more readily than other sensory cues. And earlier this year, Rachel Herz, of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, and colleagues peered into people’s heads using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to corroborate that. They scanned the brains of five women while they either looked at a photo of a bottle of perfume that evoked a pleasant memory for them, or smelled that perfume. One woman, for instance, remembered how as a child living in Paris—she would watch with excitement as her mother dressed to go out and sprayed herself with that perfume. The women themselves described the perfume as far more evocative than the photo, and Herz and co-workers found that the scent did indeed activate the amygdala and other brain regions associated with emotion processing far more strongly than the photograph. But the interesting thing was that the memory itself was no better recalled by the odour than by the picture. “People don’t remember any more detail or with any more clarity when the memory is recalled with an odour,” she says. “However, with the odour, you have this intense emotional feeling that’s really visceral.”

C. That’s hardly surprising, Herz thinks, given how the brain has evolved. “The way I like to think about it is that emotion and olfaction are essentially the same thing,” she says. “The part of the brain that controls emotion literally grew out of the part of the brain that controls smell.” That, she says, probably explains why memories for odours that are associated with intense emotions are so strongly entrenched in us, because smell was initially a survival skill: a signal to approach or to avoid.

D. Eric Vermetten, a psychiatrist at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, says that doctors have long known about the potential of smells to act as traumatic reminders, but the evidence has been largely anecdotal. Last year, he and others set out to document it by describing three cases of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients reported either that a certain smell triggered their flashbacks, or that a smell was a feature of the flashback itself. The researchers concluded that odours could be made use of in exposure therapy, or for reconditioning patients’ fear responses.

E. After Vermetten presented his findings at a conference, doctors in the audience told him how they had turned this association around and put it to good use. PTSD patients often undergo group therapy, but the therapy itself can expose them to traumatic reminders. “Some clinicians put a strip of vanilla or a strong, pleasant, everyday odorant such as coffee under their patients’ noses, so that they have this continuous olfactory stimulation.” says Vermetten. So armed, the patients seem to be better protected against flashbacks. It’s purely anecdotal, and nobody knows what’s happening in the brain, says Vermetten, but it’s possible that the neural pathways by which the odour elicits the pleasant, everyday memory override the fear-conditioned neural pathways that respond to verbal cues.

F. According to Herz, the therapeutic potential of odours could lie in their very unreliability. She has shown with her perfume-bottle experiment that they don’t guarantee any better recall, even if the memories they elicit feel more real. And there’s plenty of research to show that our noses can be tricked, because being predominantly visual and verbal creatures, we put more faith in those other modalities. In 2001, for instance, Gil Morrot, of the National Institute for Agronomic Research in Montpellier, tricked 54 oenology students by secretly colouring a white wine with an odourless red dye just before they were asked to describe the odours of a range of red and white wines. The students described the coloured wine using terms typically reserved for red wines. What’s more, just like experts, they used terms alluding to the wine’s redness and darkness—visual rather than olfactory qualities. Smell, the researchers concluded, cannot be separated from the other senses.

G. Last July, Jay Gottfried and Ray Dolan of the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience in London took that research a step further when they tested people’s response times in naming an odour, either when presented with an image that was associated with the odour or one that was not. So, they asked them to sniff vanilla and simultaneously showed them either a picture of ice cream or of cheese, while scanning their brains in a fMRI machine. People named the smells faster when the picture showed something semantically related to them, and when that happened, a structure called the hippocampus was strongly activated. The researchers’ interpretation was that the hippocampus plays a role in integrating information from the senses— information that the brain then uses to decide what it is perceiving.

Questions 19 – 24

Look at the following findings (Questions 19-24) and the list of researchers

Match each finding with the correct researcher, A-D.

Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 19-24 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

19. Smell can trigger images of horrible events.

20. Memory cannot get sharper by smell.

21. When people are given an odour and a picture of something to learn, they will respond more quickly in naming the smell because the stimulus is stronger when two or more senses are involved.

22. Pleasant smells counteract unpleasant recollections.

23. It is impossible to isolate smell from visual cues.

24. The part of brain that governs emotion is more stimulated by a smell than an image.

A. Rachel Hertz

B. Eric Vermetten

C. Gil Morrot

D. Jay Gottfried and Ray Dolan

Questions 25 – 26

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 25-26 on your answer sheet.

25. In the article, what is the opinion about the conventional method of aromatherapy?

A. Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils extracted from plants.

B. Evidence has proved that aromatherapy is effective in treating dementia.

C. People who feel aromatherapy is effective believe it is useful.

D. Aromatherapy is especially helpful for elderly patients.

26. What is Rachel Hertz’s conclusion?

A. The area of the brain which activates emotion has the same physiological structure as the part controlling olfaction.

B. We cannot depend on smell, and people have more confidence in sight and spoken or written words.

C. Odours can recall real memories even after the perfume-bottle experiment.

D. Smell has proved its therapeutic effect over a long time span.



You should spend about 20 minutes on Passage 3 below.

Architecture in Britain

From the Middle Ages to the 20th century, what are the influences and movements that have shaped the changing face of British architecture?

Architecture is about evolution, not revolution. It used to be thought that once the Romans pulled out of Britain in the fifth century, their elegant villas, carefully-planned towns and engineering marvels like Hadrian’s Wall simply fell into decay as British culture was plunged into the Dark Ages. It took the Norman Conquest of 1 066 to bring back the light, and the Gothic cathedral-builders of the Middle Ages played an important part in the revival of British culture. However, the truth is not as simple as that. Romano-British culture—and that included architecture along with language, religion, political organisation and the arts—survived long after the Roman withdrawal. And although the Anglo-Saxons had a sophisticated building style of their own, little survives to bear witness to their achievements as the vast majority of Anglo- Saxon buildings were made of wood.

Even so, the period between the Norman landing at Pevensey in 1066 and the day in 1485 when Richard III lost his horse and his head at Bosworth, ushering in the Tudors and the Early Modern period, marks a rare flowering of British buildings. And it is all the more remarkable because the underlying ethos of medieval architecture was “fitness for purpose”. The great cathedrals and parish churches that lifted up their towers to heaven were not only acts of devotion in stone; they were also fiercely functional buildings. Castles served their particular purpose and their battlements and turrets were for use rather than ornament. The rambling manor houses of the later Middle Ages, however, were primarily homes, their owners achieving respect and maintaining status by their hospitality and good lordship rather than the grandeur of their buildings. In a sense, the buildings of the 16th century were also governed by fitness for purpose—only now, the purpose was very different. In domestic architecture, in particular, buildings were used to display status and wealth.

This stately and curious workmanship showed itself in various ways. A greater sense of security led to more outward-looking buildings, as opposed to the medieval arrangement where the need for defence created houses that faced inward onto a courtyard or series of courtyards. This allowed for much more in the way of exterior ornament. The rooms themselves tended to be bigger and lighter—as an expensive commodity, the use of great expanses of glass was in itself a statement of wealth.

There was also a general move towards balanced and symmetrical exteriors with central entrances. With the exception of Inigo Jones (1573-1652), whose confident handling of classical detail and proportion set him apart from all other architects of the period, most early 1 7th century buildings tended to take the innocent exuberance of late Tudor work one step further. But during the 1640s and 50s the Civil War and its aftermath sent many gentlemen and nobles to the Continent either to escape the fighting or, when the war was lost, to follow Charles II into exile. There they came into contact with French, Dutch and Italian architecture and, with Charles’s restoration in 1 660, there was a flurry of building activity as royalists reclaimed their property and built themselves houses reflecting the latest European trends. The British Baroque was a reassertion of authority, an expression of absolutist ideology by men who remembered a world turned upside down during the Civil War. The style is heavy and rich, sometimes overblown and melodramatic. The politics which underpin it are questionable, but its products are breathtaking.

The huge glass-and-iron Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton to house the Great Exhibition of 1851, shows another strand to 19th century architecture—one which embraced new industrial processes. But it wasn’t long before even this confidence in progress came to be regarded with suspicion. Mass production resulted in buildings and furnishings that were too perfect, as the individual craftsman no longer had a major role in their creation. Railing against the dehumanising effects of industrialisation, reformers like John Ruskin and William Morris made a concerted effort to return to hand-crafted, pre-industrial manufacturing techniques. Morris’s influence grew from the production of furniture and textiles, until by the 1880s a generation of principled young architects was following his call for good, honest construction.

The most important trends in early 20th century architecture simply passed Britain by. Whilst Gropius was working on cold, hard expanses of glass, and Le Corbusier was experimenting with the use of reinforced concrete frames, we had staid establishment architects like Edwin Lutyens producing Neo-Georgian and Renaissance country houses for an outmoded landed class. In addition there were slightly batty architectcraftsmen, the heirs of William Morris, still trying to turn the clock back to before the Industrial Revolution by making chairs and spurning new technology. Only a handful of Modern Movement buildings of any real merit were produced here during the 1920s and 1930s, and most of these were the work of foreign architects such as Serge Chermayeff, Berthold Lubetkin and Erno Gold-finger who had settled in this country.

After the Second World War the situation began to change. The Modern Movement’s belief in progress and the future struck a chord with the mood of post-war Britain and, as reconstruction began under Attlee’s Labour government in 1 945, there was a desperate need for cheap housing which could be produced quickly. The use of prefabricated elements, metal frames, concrete cladding and the absence of decoration—all of which had been embraced by Modernists abroad and viewed with suspicion by the British—were adopted to varying degrees for housing developments and schools. Local authorities, charged with the task of rebuilding city centres, became important patrons of architecture. This represented a shift away from the private individuals who had dominated the architectural scene for centuries.

Since the War it has been corporate bodies like these local authorities, together with national and multinational companies, and large educational institutions, which have dominated British architecture. By the late 1 980s the Modern Movement, unfairly blamed for the social experiments implicit in high-rise housing, had lost out to irony and spectacle in the shape of post-modernism, with its cheerful borrowings from anywhere and any period. But now, in the new Millennium, even post-modernism is showing signs of age. What comes next?

Questions 27 – 31

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 27—31 on your answer sheet.

27 After Romans left Britain,

A. their achievements were neglected.

B. their cultural legacy endured.

C. there was an abrupt culture change.

D. their buildings were well protected.

28 Medieval architecture aspired all above to be

A. immense.

B. useful.

C. decorative.

D. durable.

29 Which of the following architectural features characterize the 16th-century architecture in Britain?

A. They faced inward.

B. They had plain exteriors.

C. They had small windows.

D. They used symmetry in architecture.

30 How did the 17th-century British buildings come to be influenced by styles from continental Europe?

A. Fugitives brought ideas from continental Europe back to Britain.

B. British craftsmen went to work in other countries.

C. Monarchs encouraged cultural contact with other countries.

D. Buildings were restored by architects in European countries.

31 What drove building designs after the Second World War?

A. Conservatism

B. a housing shortage

C. foreign architecture

D. wealthy patronage

Questions 32 – 40

Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 32-40 on your answer sheet.

32. Because most Anglo-Saxon buildings were constructed from……………….. , few of them have survived.

33. The owners of medieval manor houses in Britain earned their reputation through their………………..and elegance.

34. The 16th-century building was designed to show evidence of……………….. and

35. In the 16th century, the use of glass was fashionable, even though it was an………..

36. Indigo Jones was particularly skilful in designing architecture in the……………….. style.

37. Though William Morris designed……………. and……………….. , his emphasis on hand-crafting influenced architects.

38. In the early 20th century, architects like………………..were producing conservative designs.

39. Before the Second World War, modern movement buildings in Britain were mainly designed by…………………

40. After the Second World War, much architecture was commissioned by……………….. rather than private individuals.

Answer Keys Here:

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IELTS Reading Practice Test 01 from

IELTS Reading Praactice Test 01 from


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

The natural of Yawning

A. While fatigue, drowsiness or boredom easily bring on yawns, scientists are discovering there is more to yawning than most people think. Not much is known about why we yawn or if it serves any useful function. People have already learned that yawning can be infectious. “Contagious yawning” is the increase in likelihood that you will yawn after watching or hearing someone else yawn, but not much is known about the under-lying causes, and very little research has been done on the subject. However, scientists at the University of Albany, as well as the University of Leeds and the University of London have done some exploration.

B. It is commonly believed that people yawn as a result of being sleepy or tired because they need oxygen. However, the latest research shows that a yawn can help cool the brain and help it work more effectively, which is quite different from the popular belief that yawning promotes sleep and is a sign of tiredness. Dr. Andrew Gallup and his colleagues at the University of Albany in New York State said their experiments on 44 students showed that raising or lowering oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood did not produce that reaction. In the study participants were shown videos of people laughing and yawning, and researchers counted how many times the volunteers responded to the “contagious yawns”. The researchers found that those who breathed through the nose rather than the mouth were less likely to yawn when watching a video of other people yawning. The same effect was found among those who held a cool pack to their forehead, whereas those who held a warm pack yawned while watching the video. Since yawning occurs when brain temperature rises, sending cool blood to the brain serves to maintain the best levels of mental efficiency.

C. Yawning is universal to humans and many animals. Cats, dogs and fish yawn just like humans do, but they yawn spontaneously. Only humans and chimpanzees, our closest relatives in the animal kingdom, have shown definite contagious yawning. Though much of yawning is due to suggestibility, sometimes people do not need to actually see a person yawn to involuntarily yawn themselves: hearing someone yawning or even reading about yawning can cause the same reaction.

D. However, contagious yawning goes beyond mere suggestibility. Recent studies show that contagious yawning is also related to our predisposition toward empathy—the ability to understand and connect with others’ emotional states. So empathy is important, sure, but how could it possibly be related to contagious yawning? Leave it up to psychologists at Leeds University in England to answer that. In their study, researchers selected 40 psychology students and 40 engineering students. Generally, psychology students are more likely to feel empathy for others, while engineering students are thought to be concerned with objects and science. Each student was made to wait individually in a waiting room, along with an undercover assistant who yawned 10 times in as many minutes. The students were then administered an emotional quotient test: students were shown 40 images of eyes and asked what emotion each one displayed. The results of the test support the idea that contagious yawning is linked to empathy. The psychology students—whose future profession requires them to focus on others—yawned contagiously an average of 5.5 times in the waiting room and scored 28 out of 40 on the emotional test. The engineering students—who tend to focus on things like numbers and systems—yawned an average of 1.5 times and scored 25.5 out of 40 on the subsequent test. The difference doesn’t sound like much, but researchers consider it significant. Strangely enough, women, who are generally considered more emotionally attuned, didn’t score any higher than men.

E. Another study, led by Atsushi Senju, a cognitive researcher at the University of London, also sought to answer that question. People with autism disorder are considered to be developmentally impaired emotionally. Autistics have trouble connecting with others and find it difficult to feel empathy. Since autistics have difficulty feeling empathy, then they shouldn’t be susceptible to contagious yawning. To find out, Senju and his colleagues placed 49 kids aged 7 to 15 in a room with a television. 24 of the test subjects had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, the other 25 were non-autistic kids. The test subjects were shown short clips of people yawning as well as clips of people opening their mouths but not yawning. While the kids with autism had the same lack of reaction to both kinds of clips, the non-autistic kids yawned more after the clips of people yawning.

F. There also have been studies that suggest yawning, especially psychological “contagious” yawning, may have developed as a way of keeping a group of animals alert and bonding members of a group into a more unit one. If an animal is drowsy or bored, it may not be as alert as it should to be prepared to spring into action and its yawning is practically saying, “Hey, I need some rest, you stay awake”. Therefore, a contagious yawn could be an instinctual reaction to a signal from one member of the herd reminding the others to stay alert when danger comes. So the theory suggests evidence that yawning comes from the evolution of early humans to be ready to physically exert themselves at any given moment.

Question 1 – 5

Read paragraphs A—F. Which paragraph contains the following information?

NB You may use any letter more than once.

1 Humans’ imaginations can cause yawning.

2 Research shows that yawning is closely related to occupations.

3 An overview of the latest research in yawning.

4 Yawning is used to regulate brain temperature.

5 Scientists discovered some evidence disproving the early understanding of yawning.

Questions 6 – 9

Match each of the following research results with the university which it comes from

NB You may use any letter more than once.

A. University of Albany

B. University of Leeds

C. University of London

6 There is no gender difference in the cause of yawning.

7 People with certain disorders are less likely to be affected by other people yawning.

8 Yawning is associated with the way people breathe.

9 People who are trained to feel empathy for others are more likely to yawn than those who are untrained.

Questions 10 – 13

Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

Another theory shows that yawning is used for 10……………….individuals into a tighter social unit. Alternatively, yawning can help increase alertness of group members in case 11 ………… is close. For example, yawning signals that a member of the group needs some 12 ……………….and requires the others to stay aware of the surrounding situation. This theory proves that yawning is only a spontaneous behaviour resulting from some part of a simple 13……………….system in early humans.



You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.


In recent years, it has been shown that plants, more accurately roots, play a crucial part in purifying dirty water before it enters seas and rivers. In 15th-century Britain, dirty water was purified by passing through the wetlands. People began to realize that the “natural” way of water purification was effective. Nowadays subsurface flow wetlands (SSFW) are a common alternative in Europe for the treatment of wastewater in rural areas, Mainly in the last 10 to 12 years there has been a significant growth in the number and size of the systems in use. The conventional mechanism of water purification used in big cities where there are large volumes of water to be purified is inappropriate in rural areas.

The common reed has the ability to transfer oxygen from its leaves, down through its stem and rhizomes, and out via its root system. As a result of this action, a very high population of microorganisms occurs in the root system, in zones of aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. As the waste water moves very slowly through the mass of reed roots, this liquid can be successfully treated. The reason why they are so effective is often because within the bed’s root sector, natural biological, physical and chemical processes interact with one another to degrade or remove a good range of pollutants.

Dirty water from households, farms and factories consume a lot of oxygen in the water, which will lead to the death of aquatic creatures. Several aquatic plants are important in purifying water. They not only absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the water, improving the environment for fish, but absorb nutrients from the welter as well. Britain and the G.S. differ in their preference of plants to purify water. Bulrushes (Scirpus spp.) and rushes (Juncus spp.) are excellent water purifiers. They remove excess nutrients from the water as well as oil and bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. However, algae grow freely in summer and die off in winter. Their remains foul the bottom of the pool.

Artificial reed beds purify water in both horizontal and downflow ways. The reeds succeed best when a dense layer of root hairs has formed. It takes three years for the roots to fully develop. Which type of wetland a certain country applies varies widely depending on the country in Europe and its main lines of development. Besides the development of horizontal or vertical flow wetlands for wastewater treatment, the use of wetlands for sludge treatment has been very successful in Europe. Some special design lines offer the retention of microbiological organisms in constructed wetlands, the treatment of agricultural wastewater, treatment of some kinds of industrial wastewater, and the control of diffuse pollution.

If the water is slightly polluted, a horizontal system is used. Horizontal-flow wetlands may be of two types: free-water surface-flow (FWF) or sub-surface water-flow (SSF). In the former the effluent flows freely above the sand/gravel bed in which the reeds etc. are planted; in the latter effluent passes through the sand/gravel bed. In FWF-type wetlands, effluent is treated by plant stems, leaves and rhizomes. Such FWF wetlands are densely planted and typically have water-depths of less than 0.4m. However, dense planting can limit the diffusion of oxygen into the water. These systems work particularly well for low strength effluents or effluents that have undergone some forms of pretreatment and play an invaluable role in tertiary treatment and the polishing of effluents. The horizontal reed flow system uses a long reed bed, where the liquid slowly flows horizontally through. The length of the reed bed is about 100 meters. The downside of horizontal reed beds is that they use up lots of land space and they do take quite a long time to produce clean water.

A vertical flow (downflow) reed bed is a sealed, gravel filled trench with reeds growing in it. The reeds in a downflow system are planted in a bed 60cm deep. In vertical flow reed beds, the wastewater is applied to the top of the reed bed, flows down through a rhizome zone with sludge as a substrate, then through a root zone with sand as a substrate, followed by a layer of gravel for drainage, and is collected in an under drainage system of large stones. The effluent flows onto the surface of the bed and percolates slowly through the different layers into an outlet pipe, which leads to a horizontal flow bed where it is cleaned by millions of bacteria, algae, fungi, and microorganisms that digest the waste, including sewage. There is no standing water so there should be no unpleasant smells.

Vertical flow reed bed systems are much more effective than horizontal flow reedbeds not only in reducing biochemical oxygen demanded (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) levels but also in reducing ammonia levels and eliminating smells. Usually considerably smaller than horizontal flow beds, they are capable of handling much stronger effluents which contain heavily polluted matters and have a longer lifetime value. A vertical reed bed system works more efficiently than a horizontal reed bed system, but it requires more management, and its reed beds are often operated for a few days then rested, so several beds and a distribution system are needed.

The natural way of water purification has many advantages over the conventional mechanism. The natural way requires less expenditure for installation, operation and maintenance. Besides, it looks attractive and can improve the surrounding landscape. Reed beds are natural habitats found in floodplains, waterlogged depressions and estuaries. The natural bed systems are a biologically proved, an environmentally friendly and visually unobtrusive way of treating wastewater, and have the extra virtue of frequently being better than mechanical wastewater treatment systems. Over the medium to long term reed bed systems are, in most cases, more cost effective to install than any other wastewater treatment. They are naturally environmentally sound protecting groundwater, dams, creeks, rivers and estuaries.

Questions 14 – 16

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 14-16 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

14 The reed bed system is a conventional method for water treatment in urban areas.

15 In the reed roots, there is a series of processes that help break down the pollutants.

16 Escherichia coli is the most difficult bacteria to eliminate.

Questions 17-19

Complete the diagram below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Downflow Reed Bed System

Question 20 – 24

Use the information in the passage to match the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems: horizontal flow system and down-flow system (listed A—H) below.

Write the appropriate letters A-H in boxes 20-24 on your answer sheet.

The advantage of the downflow system is 20……………….; however, 21 ……………… and 22…………………The two advantages of the horizontal system are 23………………..and 24………………….In comparison with the downflow system, the horizontal system is less effective.

A. it requires several beds

B. it is easier to construct

C. it builds on a gradient

D. it doesn’t need much attention

E. it produces less sludges

F. it isn’t always working

G. it needs deeper bed

H. it can deal with more heavily polluted water

Questions 25-26

Choose two correct letters, from the following A, B, C, D or E.

Write your answers in boxes 25—26 on your answer sheet.

What are the TWO advantages of the natural water purification system mentioned in the passage:

A. It uses micro-organisms

B. It involves a low operating cost

C. It prevents flooding.

D. It is visually good-looking

E. It can function in all climates



History of telegraph in communication

Jean-Antoine Nollet was a French clergyman and physicist. In 1746 he gathered about two hundred monks into a circle about a mile (1.6 km) in circumference, with pieces iron wire connecting them. He then discharged a battery of Leyden jars through the human chain and observed that each man reacted at substantially the same time to the electric shock, showing that the speed of electricity’s propagation was very high. Given a more humane detection system, this could be a way of signaling over long distances. In 1 748, Nollet invented one of the first electrometers, the electroscope, which detected the presence of an electric charge by using electrostatic attraction and repulsion.

After the introduction of the European semaphore lines in 1792, the world’s desire to further its ability to communicate from a distance only grew. People wanted a way to send and receive news from remote locations so that they could better understand what was happening in the world around them—not just what was going on in their immediate town or city. This type of communication not only appealed to the media industry, but also to private individuals and companies who wished to stay in touch with contacts. In 1840 Charles Wheatstone from Britain, with William Cooke, obtained a new patent for a telegraphic arrangement. The new apparatus required only a single pair of wires, but the telegraph was still too costly for general purposes. In 1 845, however, Cooke and Wheatstone succeeded in producing the single needle apparatus, which they patented,and from that time the electric telegraph became a practical instrument, soon adopted on all the railway lines of the country.

It was the European optical telegraph, or semaphore, that was the predecessor of the electrical recording telegraph that changed the history of communication forever. Building on the success of the optical telegraph, Samuel F. B. Morse completed a working version of the electrical recording telegraph, which only required a single wire to send code of dots and dashes. At first, it was imagined that only a few highly skilled encoders would be able to use it but it soon became clear that many people could become proficient in Morse code. A system of lines strung on telegraph poles began to spread in Europe and America.

In the 1840s and 1850s several individuals proposed or advocated construction of a telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, including Edward Thornton and Alonzo Jackman. At that time there was no material available for cable insulation and the first breakthrough came with the discovery of a rubber-like latex called gutta percha. Introduced to Britain in 1843, gutta percha is the gum of a tree native to the Malay Peninsula and Malaysia. After the failure of their first cable in 1850, the British brothers John and Jacob Brett laid a successful submarine cable from Dover to Calais in 1851. This used two layers of gutta percha insulation and an armoured outer layer. With thin wire and thick insulation, it floated and had to be weighed down with lead pipe.

In the case of first submarine-cable telegraphy, there was the limitation of knowledge of how its electrical properties were affected by water. The voltage which may be impressed on the cable was limited to a definite value. Moreover, for certain reasons, the cable had an impedance associated with it at the sending end which could make the voltage on the cable differ from the voltage applied to the sending-end apparatus. In fact, the cable was too big for a single boat, so two had to start in the middle of the Atlantic, join their cables and sail in opposite directions. Amazingly, the first official telegram to pass between two continents was a letter of congratulation from Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom to the President of the United States, James Buchanan, on August 16, 1 858. However, signal quality declined rapidly, slowing transmission to an almost unusable speed and the cable was destroyed the following month.

To complete the link between England and Australia, John Pender formed the British- Australian Telegraph Company. The first stage was to lay a 557nm cable from Singapore to Batavia on the island of Java in 1870. It seemed likely that it would come ashore qt the northern port of Darwin from where it might connect around the coast to Queensland and New South Wales. It was an undertaking more ambitious than spanning ocean. Flocks of sheep had to be driven with the 400 workers to provide food. They needed horses and bullock carts and, for the parched interior, camels. In the north, tropical rains left the teams flooded. In the centre, it seemed that they would die of thirst. One critical section in the red heart of Australia involved finding a route through the McDonnell mountain range and then finding water on the other side. The water was not only essential for the construction teams. There had to be telegraph repeater stations every few hundred miles to boost the signal and the staff obviously had to have a supply of water.

On August 22, 1872, the Northern and Southern sections of the Overland Telegraph Line were connected, uniting the Australian continent and within a few months, Australia was at last in direct contact with England via the submarine cable, too. This allowed the Australian Government to receive news from around the world almost instantaneously for the first time. It could cost several pounds to send a message and it might take several hours for it to reach its destination on the other side of the globe, but the world would never be the same again. The telegraph was the first form of communication over a great distance and was a landmark in human history.

Question 27 – 32

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage In boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

27 In the research of the French scientist, metal lines were used to send messages.

28 People increasingly hoped to explore ways of long-distance communication in the late eighteenth century.

29 Using Morse Code to send message needed special personnel to first simplify the message,

30 Morse was a famous inventor before he invented the code.

31 Water was significant to early telegraph repeater stations on the continent.

32 The Australian Government offered funds for the first overland line across the continent.

Questions 33 – 40

Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 33-40 on your answer sheet.

33 Why did Charles Wheatstone’s telegraph system fail to come into common use in the beginning?

34 What material was used for insulating cable across the sea?

35 What was used by British pioneers to increase the weight of the cable in the sea?

36 What would occur in the submarine cable when the voltage was applied?

37 Who was a message first sent to across the Atlantic by the Queen?

38 What animals were used to carry the cable through desert?

39 What weather condition delayed construction in north Australia?

40 How long did it take to send a telegraph message from Australia to England in 1872?

Answer Keys Here:

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