TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 Solution & Transcripts

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 Solution & Transcripts

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 from Official TOEFL iBT Test with Audio Volume 1 Solution

Solution for Listening 27

——————————————————————————-TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 Solution & Transcripts

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 from Official TOEFL iBT Test with Audio Volume 1 Solution Transcripts




Listen to a conversation between a student and a librarian.


Can I help you?


Yeah, I need to find a review. It’s for my English class. We have to find reviews of the play we’re reading. But they have to be from when the play was first performed – so I need to know when that was… and I suppose I should start with newspaper reviews…


Contemporary reviews.




You want contemporary reviews. What’s the name of the play?


It’s Happy Strangers. It was written In ,962 and we’re supposed to write about Its influence on American theater-show why It’s been so important.


Well, that certainly explains why your professor wants you to read some of those old reviews. The critics really tore the play to pieces when it opened. It was just so controversial—nobody’d ever seen anything like it on the stage.


Really? It was that big a deal?


Oh sure. Of course, the critics’ reaction made some people kinda curious about it; they wanted to see what was causing all the fuss. In fact, we were on vacation in New York – I had to be, oh around sixteen or so—and my parents took me to see it. That would’ve been about 1965.


So that was the year it premiered? Great! But… newspapers from back then aren’t online, so how do I…


Well, we have copies of old newspapers in the basement, and all the major papers publish reference guides to their articles, reviews, etc. You’ll find them in the reference stacks in back. But I’d start with 1964. I think the play’d been running for a little while when I saw it.


Oh, how’d you like it? I mean it’s just two characters onstage hanging around and basically doing nothing.


Well, I was impressed: the actors were famous and, besides, it was my first time in a real theater. But you’re right—it was definitely different from any plays that we’d read in high school. Of course, in a small town, the assignments are pretty traditional.


I’ve only read it, but it doesn’t seem like it’d be much fun to watch. The story doesn’t progress in a, in any sort of logical manner. It doesn’t have any real ending either. It just stops. Honestly, y’know, I thought it was kinda slow and boring.


Well, I guess you might think that, but when I saw it back then it was anything but boring! Some parts were really funny—but I remember crying, too. But I m not sure just reading it… You know, they’ve done this play at least once on campus. I’m sure there’s a tape of the play in our video library. You might want to borrow it.


That’s a good idea. I’ll have a better idea of what I really think of it—before I read those reviews.


I’m sure you’ll be surprised that anyone ever found it radical—but you’ll see why it’s still powerful—dramatically speaking.


Well, there must be something about it or the professor wouldn’t have assigned it. I’m sure I’ll figure it out.




Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class. The class is discussing animal behavior.

Professor         ..

OK, the next kind of animal behavior 1 want to talk about might be familiar to you.

You may have seen, for example, a bird that’s in the middle of a mating ritual. And, and suddenly it stops and preens—you know, it takes a few moments to straighten its feathers—and then returns to the mating ritual. This kind of behavior—this doing something that seems completely out of place—is what we call a displacement activity.

Displacement activities are activities that animals engage in when they have conflicting drives—if, if we take our example from a minute ago—if the bird is afraid of its mate, it’s conflicted, it wants to mate, but it’s also afraid and wants to run away, so instead it starts grooming itself. So the displacement activity, the, the grooming, the straightening of its feathers seems to be an irrelevant behavior.

So what do you think another example of a displacement activity might be?

Male student

How about an animal that, urn, instead of fighting its enemy or running awav it attacks a plant or a bush?


That’s a really good suggestion, Carl, but that’s called redirecting. The animal is redirecting its behavior to another object, in this case, the plant or the bush. But that’s not an irrelevant or inappropriate behavior—the behavior makes sense—it’s appropriate under the circumstances, but what doesn’t make sense is the object the behavior’s directed towards. OK, who else? Carol?

Female student

I think I read in another class about an experiment, um, where an object that the animal was afraid of was put next to its food-next to the animal’s food—and the animal it was conflicted between confronting the object, and eating the food, so instead it just fell asleep. Like that?


That’s exactly what I mean. Displacement occurs because the animal’s got two conflicting drives, two competing urges, in this case, fear and hunger—and what happens is they inhibit each other—they cancel each other out in a way, and a third, seemingly irrelevant behavior surfaces … through a process that we call disinhibition.

Now, in disinhibition, the basic idea is that two drives that seem to inhibit, to hold back a third drive, well, well, they get in the way of each other in a, in a conflict situation, and somehow lose control, lose their inhibiting effect on that third behavior… wh-which means that the third drive surfaces … it-it’s expressed in the animal’s behavior.         .

Now, these displacement activities can include feeding, drinking, grooming, even sleeping. These are what we call “comfort behaviors.” So why do you think displacement activities are so often comfort behaviors, such as grooming?

Male student

Maybe because it’s easy for them to do—I mean, grooming is like one of the most accessible things an animal can do—it’s something they do all the time, and they have the-the stimulus right there, on the outside of their bodies in order to do the groom- ing—or if food is right in front of them. Basically, they don’t have to think very much about those behaviors.

Female student

Professor, isn’t it possible that animals groom because they’ve gotten messed up a little from fighting or mating? I mean, if a bird’s feathers get ruffled, or an animal’s fur – maybe it’s not so strange for them to stop and tidy themselves up at that point.


That’s another possible reason, although it doesn’t necessarily explain other behaviors such as eating, drinking, or sleeping. What’s interesting is that studies have been done that suggest that the animal’s environment may play a part in determining what kind of behavior it displays. For example, there’s a bird—the wood thrush, anyway when the wood thrush is in an attack-escape conflict—that is, it’s caught between the two urges to escape from or to attack an enemy—if it’s sitting on a horizontal branch, it’ll wipe its beak on its perch. If it’s sitting on a vertical branch, it II groom its breast feathers. The immediate environment of the bird—its immediate, um, its relationship to its immediate environment seems to play a part in which behavior it will display.

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TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 20 Solution & Explanation

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 20 Solution & Explanation

Solution & Explanation for TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 20 ( From Barron’s TOEFL’S iBT)


Reading 1 “The Hydrologic Cycle”TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 20 Solution & Explanation

1. B Solar energy is the source of power for the hydrologic cycle paraphrases “The hydrologic cycle is driven by solar energy” and begins by evaporating water from plants, soil, oceans, and freshwater sources paraphrases “evaporates water from oceans, freshwater bodies, soils, and vegetation.”

2. D “The hydrologic cycle is the transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the oceans.” Choices A and B are not correct because they are not complete since they refer to only part of the cycle. Choice C is not correct because it refers to water sources, not the process.

3. D “Of the total 1.3 billion cubic km water on Earth, about 97% is in oceans, and about 2% is in glaciers and ice caps. The rest [of the water] is in freshwater on land and in the atmosphere.” The pronoun phrase “The rest” does not refer to Choices A, B, and C.

4. C “… water on land [freshwater] is important in moving chemicals, sculpturing landscape, weathering rocks, transporting sediments, and providing our water resources.” Choice A is not correct because the rate of evaporation is not compared. Choice B is not correct because 97% of the water is in oceans, not freshwater sources. Choice D is true, but it is not the reason why freshwater is considered important.

5. B “… the building of large dams and reservoirs, can change the amount of water evaporated into the atmosphere and change the location and amount of precipitation on land.” Choice A is not correct because pavement increases flooding. Choice C is not correct because it refers to the purpose of the man-made water sources, not to their effect on the water cycle. Choice D is not correct because aqueducts transport water from the mountains, but they do not improve the flow into the oceans.

6. B In this passage, part is a synonym for “component.” Context comes from the references to “percentages.”

7. C In this passage, basic is a synonym for “fundamental.” Context comes from the usage with “unit,” which is often described as “basic” or “fundamental.”

8. A “A drainage basin is usually named for its main stream or river, such as the Mississippi River drainage basin.” The phrase “such as” signals an example. Choices B, C, and D are true, but they are not the reason that the author mentions the Mississippi River.

9. D “… this relatively small amount of water in the global water cycle {0.001 % of the total water on Earth] . . . produces all our freshwater resources.” Choice A is not correct because the residence time of 9 days is more than one week. Choice B is not correct because both glaciers and oceans are unsuitable for human use. Choice C is not correct because only a relatively small amount of water is in the global water cycle at any one time.

10. C ”… 99% of Earth’s water in its natural state is unavailable or unsuitable for beneficial human use.” Choice A is not correct because total water abundance is not the problem. Choice B is not correct because water can be found at or near the Earth’s surface. Choice D is not correct because the age of water is not mentioned as a safety hazard.

11. C In this passage, important is a synonym for “significant.” Context comes from the numbers in the fraction.

12. C Cause and effect is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. The cause is “distribution of water on land is far from uniform” and the result is water shortages in some areas. Choices A, B, and D are not correct because the cause and result are not in consecutive order.

13. C, E, A summarize the passage. Choice B is a minor point that refers to major point C. Choice D can be inferred from the passage, but it is not developed as a major point. Choice F is true but it is not mentioned in the passage.

Reading 2 “Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory”

14. C We engage in both organization of what we see and experience paraphrases”… In addition to organizing our observations and experiences” and adaptation of novel ideas paraphrases “we adapt, adjusting to new environmental demands.”

15. A The concepts are explained by the toddler’s new experience with the car as the child “has assimilated these objects . .. and fine-tunes the category . . . accommodating the scheme.” Choice B is not correct because the concepts, not the demonstration, are the lesson. Choice C is not correct because the toddler solves the problem. Choice D is not correct because the example demonstrates the ways that people adapt, not the stages of development.

16. A In this passage, change is a synonym for “adjust.” Context comes from the reference to “adapt” in a previous sentence.

17. B “Some objects such as fingers and the mother’s breast, can be sucked, but others [other objects], such as fuzzy blankets, should not be sucked.” The noun “others” does not refer to Choices A, C, and D.

18. C In this passage, different is a synonym for “distinct.” Context comes from the reference to “different” in the next sentence.

19. B In this passage, complex is a synonym for “sophisticated.”

20. B “… operations, which are internalized mental actions.” Choice A is not correct because symbolic thought occurs in a later stage, after operations. Choice C is not correct because it occurs in an earlier stage, before operations. Choice D is not correct because the reasoning that children can perform in operational stages does not explain the term operations.

21. B “. . . concrete operational thinkers cannot imagine the steps necessary to complete an algebraic equation, which is too abstract for thinking at this stage.” Choice A is not correct because algebra requires formal, not concrete, operational thinking. Choice C is not correct because a child of 10 has reasoning abilities, if they are applied to concrete examples. Choice D is not correct because it is the abstract nature of the steps, not the number of steps, that makes algebra too difficult for a 10-year old.

22. C “They might think about what an ideal parent is like and compare their parents to this ideal standard.” Choice A is true, but it is not the reason that the author mentions parents. Choices B and D are not mentioned in the passage.

23. A Because the formal operational stage is the last stage in Piaget’s theory, and the age range is between 11 and 15, it must be concluded that people who are older than 15 have completed all of the stages. Choice B is not correct because the age range for the formal operational stage is between 11 and 15. Choice C is not correct because logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought in the concrete operational stage from 7 to 11 years of age. Choice D is not correct because there is no evidence to support this conclusion in the passage.

24. C Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 2. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentences 2 and 3. Choice D is mentioned in paragraph 7, sentences 3 and 4.

25. C Chronological order is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the following sentence. “At the beginning” should appear in the sentence before “At the end” in reference to the sensorimotor stage.

26. E, A, B summarize the passage. Choice C is an explanation of the concrete operational stage, which is a minor point that is used to develop major point B. Choice D is an example of accommodation that supports major point A. Choice F is true, but it is not directly referred to in the passage.

Reading 3 “Conquest by Patents”

27. D “… patents are about the control of technology.” Choices A and B are not correct because protests and lawsuits are caused by patents, but they are not the reason for patents to exist. Choice C is not correct because the “incentive and reward” to inventors is the reason touted [publicized] but not the real reason.

28. D “In the 1760s … Arkwright invented the water-powered spinning frame, a machine destined to bring cotton-spinning out of the home and into the factory. It [a machine] was an invention.” The pronoun “If does not refer to Choices A, B, or C.

29. A Among the laws to protect Britain from competition paraphrases “To protect its [Britain’s] competitive advantage . . . Parliament enacted a series of restrictive measures,” and the textile industry paraphrases “manufactured cloth.”… a ban on exporting Arkwright equipment paraphrases “the prohibition of the export of Arkwright machinery” and the [ban on] emigration of former employees paraphrases “the emigration of any workers who had worked in factories using it [Arkwright machinery].”

30. C “… Samuel Slater, who had worked for years in the Arkwright mills, left England … disguised as a farmer… he was an intellectual property thief.” Choice A is not correct because Slater established the textile mill in America, not in Great Britain. Choice B is not correct because Slater was the only worker from Britain. Choice D is not correct because Slater broke the law.

31. A In this passage, discoveries is a synonym for “innovations.” Context comes from the introduction in the first paragraph that explains the “rights” for “inventors.”

32. B “By the early 1970s… U.S. industry demanded greater protection for its idea-based products.”

Choice A is not correct because the free exchange was favored earlier in the history of the United States. Choice C is not correct because the United States pushed for standards in international trade agreements. Choice D is not correct because the United States blamed the Third World nations for piracy.

33. A “… a counterclaim that these were ‘natural’ or ‘raw* materials and therefore did not qualify for patents.” Choice B is not correct because a high percentage Of the materials originated in plant and animal germplasm taken from the developing world. Choice C is not correct because barely a cent of royalties had been paid. Choice D is a claim against pirates in the Third World, but it is not a justification for using plants and animals from the developing world.

34. B “Such unacknowledged and uncompensated appropriation they named ‘biopiracy.’” Choices A, C, and D are not part of the author’s definition.

35. B In this passage, assist is a synonym for “facilitate.” Context comes from logical reasoning in the sentence that suggests a positive effect. Choice D can be eliminated because it would have a negative effect.

36. D In this passage, ideas is a synonym for “notions.” Context comes from the reference to the abstract concepts of “property and creativity.”

37. A The word “Conquest” conveys the idea of domination, power, and unfair practices. Choices B and C are true, but they do not explain the use of the word “Conquest.” Choice D is not correct because the trade agreements prevent developing nations from exerting the power that they might obtain through ownership of valuable resources.

38. A Chronological order as well as cause and effect are transitional devices that connect the insert sentence with the previous and following sentences. “Arriving in the U.S.” in the insert sentence would have to follow the reference in the previous sentence to the time when Slater “left England for the New World.” The recreation of the factory in the insert sentence was the cause that “enabled the production of commercial-grade cotton cloth in the New World” mentioned in the following sentence.

39. A, D, F summarize the passage. Choices B and C provide an example that develops major point A.

Choice E is a detail that supports major point D.

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TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 26 Solution & Transcripts

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 26 Solution & Transcripts



1. C

2. A

3. B

4. D

5. B

6. B

7. B

8. A, C

9. A

10. B

11. B

12. B

13. D

14. B

15. B

16. C

17. B

18. B

19. D

20. B, C

21. C

22. C

23. C

24. C


Yes No
Light and dark areas  X
Several colors used  X
Signature near the paintings  X
Mix of Magdal&nian and Solutrean styles  X
Frequent appearance of wiki animals In the paintings  X

26. A

27. B

28. D

29. C

30. A

31. D

32. A



  Scattering Passivity Aggression Camouflage
Chameleon  X
Dog  X
Gorilla  X
Deer  X

34. B

——————————————————————————-TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 26 Solution & Transcripts


N Listen to a conversation between a student and her professor.

S: Professor Keyes? May I come In?

P: Jessica, sure, have a seat. What can I do for you?

S: It’s the lab experiments, professor. I’m getting different results from everyone else, so I thought better ask for your advice or else I’ll fall the class.

P: Not everyone gets the right results but … well, the only reason I didn’t talk to you about this is I thought you might’ve discovered on your own what you were doing wrong.

S: Well. I’ve gone over every step of every experiment we did in the lab, and I haven’t been able to figure out where I went wrong In any of them.

P: OK, I think you probably study the steps carefully and you’ve probably even memorized what to do …

S: Yes, that’s what I do before every experiment.

P: But I’ve observed something in my classes ever since I started teaching chemistry. Some students know the steps Involved In an experiment but they don’t understand the purpose and the objectives of the experiment.

S: Well…

P: Do you actually read through the reference and the handouts I give?

S: Um, not really. I just find It very difficult reading … so I thought that If I just did the experiment right, I mean, you know, the steps, I’d be able to understand what It was I was doing.

P: Well, think about It this way, Jessica. Knowing what the steps are will help you when you write up a lab report, but would you be able to write a conclusion about the results If you didn’t understand what you were doing?

S: No, I guess not.

P: So … why not spend just half an hour going through the material … and If It Isn’t clear to you, you can either ask me … or you can go over to the Chemistry Club … there are a lot of really helpful students there who’d be willing to explain It to you.

S: OK, I’ll do that.

P: There’s something else. I’ve noticed that you aren’t always precise in your measurements. You’re not going to get the results you’re looking for If you don’t measure things right… or heat an Ingredient at the right heat … or heat it for the exact amount of time required.

S: Does it really have to be that precise?

P: Sure It doesl And this is something you would’ve learned if you had read the textbook and my handouts.

S: OK, Professor… I see what I’m doing wrong. Well,

I better go and read the textbook now … and 1*11 take your advice about asking for help If I don’t understand what I’m reading.


N Listen to part of a lecture from a neuroscience class.

S: OK class, I have an interesting statistic for you today. According to current research on sleep disorders in this country, at least 33% of the population suffers from one form of sleep disorder or another. So, uh … that’s roughly 20 people in this class alone, right? Now, if I asked for a show of hands, we probably wouldn’t get an accurate result. This Is because many people go through life undiagnosed. How so? Well, one of the reasons sleep disorders go untreated Is because people who suffer from poor sleep blame things such as tension at work or problems at home, not realizing that there is a medical condition that better explains their tiredness.

Besides insomnia, the most common form of sleep disorder is sleep apnea. Do we have anyone from Greece here? No. OK, well apnea is a Greek word meaning “without breath.” People with sleep apnea actually stop breathing hundreds of times for about ten to twenty seconds at a time in the night. According to the National Institute of Health, sleep apnea affects more than twelve million Americans. To put that number into perspective, um, let’s see … that number Is comparable to the amount of people in our country who suffer from diabetes. In fact, the risk factors are actually similar to diabetes as well. Your chances of having sleep apnea rise if you are male, over forty, or overweight. Now, even though these risk factors don’t seem to apply to any of you In here,

I should note that sleep apnea can affect anyone, even children.

Obstructive sleep apnea, often referred to as OSA, is the most common of the three types of apnea. Approximately 90% of those who suffer from sleep apnea have OSA. The cause of OSA Is a blockage of the airway. Uh … sorry, those of you who haven’t had first-aid training may not be familiar with the term “airway.” What I should say Is that air is blocked from entering the trachea, otherwise known as the windpipe. This is the passage that brings air into your body. There are a number of different things In your mouth that could cause this blockage. One is the uvula, or uh … the small thing that hangs at the back of your throat. The tissues and muscles In your throat can also cause this blockage If they are overly strained. In some cases of OSA, the tongue is found to be the culprit. The other two types of sleep apnea are central and mixed apnea. Central apnea is caused by a brain malfunction that forgets to signal muscles to breath. And I’m sure I don’t need to mention that mixed apnea Is a combination of the two.

I know what you are probably thinking now. If sleep disorders go undiagnosed so often, how will you know If you’ve got sleep apnea? Well, unfortunately, many people who suffer from sleep apnea do not recognize the symptoms of the condition because they don’t notice themselves gasping for air, It Is usually a partner that first notices strange breathing and waking In the night. Loud snoring is usually accompanied by frequent arousals caused by the brain signaling for the sleeper to wake up and breathe. People who sleep alone might not realize they are waking in the night, but will notice tiredness during the day. Headaches, memory loss, and lack of concentration are early signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea can make it dangerous to operate a vehicle and can affect one’s job performance. Need I mention falling asleep In class? All kidding aside, severe sleep disorders, such as OSA can cause high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease if left untreated.

So, what can be done for those who are diagnosed? Well, as It turns out, there are plenty of simple and non-intruslve solutions. For starters, sleep experts usually suggest avoiding alcohol, sleeping on one’s side Instead of one’s back, and losing weight. Elderly people who use sleeping pills are asked to put away their medication for an experimental period to see if the apnea disappears. Ironically, sleep medication can relax the muscles too much, causing the air to get blocked. In cases where symptoms do not Improve, patients are sometimes treated with CPAP, which means wearing something similar to an oxygen mask to bed at night. Sorry, I should mention that CPAP stands for Continuous Positive Airway Passage. In very extreme cases, routine surgery Is used to eliminate the problem.

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TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 19 Solution & Explanation

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 19 Solution & Explanation

Solution & Explanation for TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 19 ( From Barron’s TOEFL’S iBT)

Reading 1 “Exam and Endangered Species”

1. C . exotic species … a resident of an established community that was deliberately or accidentally moved from its home range and became established elsewhere.” Choice A is not correct because it refers to an endangered species, not an exotic species. Choice B is not correct because exotic species are moved from their communities. Choice D is not correct because an exotic species becomes established, unlike most imports, which fail to thrive outside of their home range.

2. D “Unlike most imports, which can’t take hold outside their home range, an exotic species permanently insinuates itself [the exotic species] into a new community.” The pronoun “itself does not refer to Choices A, B, or C.

3. B In this passage, connect is a synonym for “bond.” Context comes from the result at the end of the same sentence. “… they started to import familiar animals.”

4. C “… no natural predators… was the reality.” Choice A is not correct because it refers to a solution for the problem, not why the plan failed. Choice B is not correct because Australians imported rabbits because they liked the familiar species. Choice D is not correct because it refers to the reason that the rabbits were introduced, not to why the plan failed.

5. C The rabbits create deserts by eating the vegetation, but they were not moved to deserts.

Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 6. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 7. Choice D is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 9.

6. B “Biting insects, mainly mosquitoes and fleas, quickly transmit the virus from host to host.”

Choice A is not correct because South American rabbits are the normal hosts for the myxoma virus. Choice C is not correct because it is the O. cuniculus rabbit that dies when infected. Choice D is not correct because resistant populations of O. cuniculus rabbits, not fleas, have an immunity to the virus.

7. C “… researchers are now questioning whether… it can … infect animals other than rabbits (such as humans).” Choice A is not correct because insects were not mentioned in the Spencer Gulf experiment. Choice B is not correct because the purpose of the experiment was to kill the rabbits. Choice D is not correct because 80 to 95 percent of the rabbits are being killed, but the small number with immunity is not identified as dangerous.

8. C In this passage, results is a synonym for “consequences.” Context comes from the logical connection between researchers “questioning” and the phrase “long-term,” which describes the “consequences.”

9. D The farm and processing plant will manufacture products from kudzu, which will offer partial solutions. Choice A is not correct because kudzu was imported to control erosion, not for manufacture. Choice B is not correct because no argument is presented in defense of the decision. Choice C is not correct because it grows in Asia already.

10. A In this passage, surpasses is a synonym for “exceeds.” Context comes from the logical relationship between “demand” and “supply.”

11. D “When you hear someone bubbling enthusiastically about an exotic species, you can safely bet the speaker isn’t an ecologist… they [exotic species] make native species endangered species.” This introduction establishes the author’s opinion that exotic species are often disruptive to the ecology.

12. C Vocabulary reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. The connection is the reference to “starch” in both the insert sentence and the previous sentence.

13. E, B, C summarize the passage. Choice A is a minor point that refers to major point C. Choice D is a detail that is not developed as a major point. Choice F is an important fact, but it is not a major point because is it not developed.

Reading 2 “Paleolithic Art”

14. C . the remoteness and difficulty of access … suggests]… magical properties … rituals or dances.” Choice A is not correct because they were probably used for rituals. Choices B and D are not mentioned or implied in the passage.

15. D Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 1, sentence 5. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 1, sentence 6. Choice C is implied in paragraph 1, sentences 3 and 5.

16. A In this passage, admissionIs a synonym for “access.” Context comes from the contrast with “remoteness” and “difficulty” in the same sentence.

17. C In this passage, assist is a synonym for “facilitate.” Context comes from the contrast of “destruction” and “survival” in the same and following sentences.

18. C “A central problem for both the … theories is that the animals that seem to have been diet staples of Old Stone Age peoples are not those [animals] most frequently portrayed.” The pronoun “those” does not refer to Choices A, B, or D.

19. B In this passage, the phrase not believed describes “discredited.” Choice A describes distracted. Choice C describes discouraged. Choice D describes disorderly. Context comes from the parts of the word. The prefix dis means “not.” The root credit means “believe.”

20. A It is true paraphrases “cannot… be doubted” and the paintings were meaningful paraphrases “the paintings did have meaning.”

21. B “… and composition (how the motifs are arranged on the surface)____A definition appears within the parentheses that follow the word. Choices A and C are not correct because neither an example nor a contrasting statement is included in reference to the word composition. Although “art historians” are mentioned in a previous sentence about the intent of the paintings, they are not referred to in order to define a word.

22. B “Some researchers have considered them [positive imprints] ‘signatures* of cult or community members, or… individual artists.” Choices A and C are not correct because they are not mentioned or implied. Choice D is not correct because the author states that the “handprints . . . must have had a purpose.”

23. C “Old Stone Age painters and sculptors frequently . . . used the caves* naturally irregular surfaces to help give the illusion of real presence to their forms.” Choice A is not correct because the hardness of the stone is not mentioned. Choice B is not correct because the rock formation, not the animals, provided inspiration. Choice D may have been true, but it is not the reason that they selected certain surfaces in the caves.

24. C Because the author presents several different theories and does not offer a strong argument for any of them, the author’s opinion is probably that the exact purpose of cave paintings is not known. Choice A is not correct because the author also presents the food-creation theory and the mythology theory as alternatives to the hunting ritual theory. Choice B is not correct because the mythology theory is not the only possibility discussed. Choice D is not correct because the author suggests several reasons why this theory cannot explain the narrow range of subjects or the inaccessibility of many of the paintings.

25. B Example is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the general statement in the previous sentence. The connection is between the general statement “animals that seem to have been diet staples . . . are not. . . portrayed” and the example that “red deer, not bison were eaten.”

26. B, D, A summarize the passage. Choice C is true, but it is a minor point that is mentioned as evidence for Choice B. Choice E is not mentioned in the passage. Choice F is true, but it is a point that is used to develop the ideas in Choice A.

Reading 3 “Group Decision Making”

27. A “Groups accumulate more information, knowledge and facts … and often consider more alternatives.” Choice B is not correct because a group tends to view a problem in more than one way. Choice C is not correct because making recommendations instead of decisions is not mentioned or implied in the passage. Choice D is not correct because each person has experience, but the experience of a group is not mentioned as a reason why a group is chosen to participate.

28. B . people will … be more committed to a decision in which they have had a say than to a decision made for them.” Choice A is true, but more ideas do not explain why the decisions are successful. Choice C is not correct because the help provided by a large number of people is not mentioned in the passage as an advantage during implementation. Choice D is not correct because implementation is successful in group decisions, but the decisions themselves may or may not be successful.

29. B In this passage, significant is a synonym for “considerable.” Context comes from the reference to the “time required to make a decision” as a “disadvantage.”

30. D In this passage, As a result describes “Consequently.” Context comes from the conclusion that follows the word “Consequently.”

31. B “One obvious disadvantage of group decision making is the time required to make a decision.”

Choice A is not correct because the implication is that sometimes a decision could have been made as effectively by an individual. Choice C is not correct because the “cost” refers to the time, not to the pay for group members. Choice D is not correct because groups tend to avoid disagreements.

32. B “All group members need to be encouraged and permitted to contribute.” Choice A is not correct because the group should have goals, and personal goals by one member [the leader] should not dominate the discussion. Choice C is not correct because it is considered a disadvantage when an individual such as the group leader dominates the group. Choice D is not correct because expectations are not mentioned as a responsibility of the group leader.

33. B In this passage, debatable is a synonym for “controversial.” Context comes from the contrast with “social pressure … to conform.”

34. C “. .. a group may try too hard to compromise … to maintain friendships and avoid disagreements.” Choice A is not correct because the group may not make optimal decisions when the members try too hard to compromise. Choice B is not correct because groupthink requires agreement rather than compromise. Choice D is not correct because helping one member to reach a personal goal or win an argument would be the opposite of compromise.

35. A “It occurs when groups are highly cohesive, have highly directive leaders, are insulated so they have no dear ways to get objective information, and—because they lack outside information— have little hope that a better solution might be found than the one [solution] proposed by the leader or other influential group members.” The phrase “the one” does not refer to Choices B, C, or D.

36. B “. . . self-appointed ‘mind guards’ . . . bring pressure on dissenters.” Choice A is not correct because people who conform will not necessarily pressure others. Choice C is not correct because “mind guards” use force to exert influence and may not be the most ethical members. Choice D is not correct because “mind guards” do not disagree with the group.

37. C “… decisions … are made without consideration of. .. alternative options.” Choice A is not correct because the group exerts pressure on dissenters, but dissenters do not exert pressure on the group. Choice B is not correct because it is neither mentioned nor implied in the passage. Choice D is not correct because when groupthink takes place, poor decision making and wrong decisions occur.

38. A Generalization and example is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with following sentences. “In fact, the traditional group is prone to a variety of difficulties” provides a general statement that introduces the disadvantages developed in the following sentences. Choices B, C, and D would interrupt the examples by inserting the generalization.

39. Advantages: C, D, H Disadvantages: A, B, E, F Not used: G, I

next –> Answers for Reading 5 + Reading 6

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TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 25 Solution & Transcripts

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 25 Solution & Transcripts




2. C

3. A

4. D

5. C

6. D

7. A

8. D

9. B

10. A

11. B

12. D

13. C

14. B

15. A

16. C

17. C

18. D

19. C

20. A

21. D

22. B

23. D

24. C

25. A

26. A, B, D

27. C

28. B

29. B

30. B, C

31. D

32. A

33. B

34. B


——————————————————————————-TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 25 Solution & Transcripts



N: Listen to the following conversation between a student and a professor.

P: Yes, hello? Don’t be shy. Please come in.

S: HI. Are you Dr. Johnson? Dr. Claire Johnson?

P: Yup. That’s me. How can I help you?

S: Well, we’ve never met before, because I’m not in the history department. But, my name is Marc Singer. I’m actually a drama student.

P: Hi, Marc. Are you here about taking a class In the history department? We have a number of very good introductory classes for people who are only casually Interested In history. A lot of the drama and language students really enjoy them, and the classes can count towards your science requirements. It’s easier to take a history class than introductory calculus.

S: Thank you. But, I was really hoping to do something a little more advanced. There Is a class, actually one that I believe you teach, called “War and Television’1 that I would really love to take,

P: That might be a problem, Marc. You see, that class is a requirement for the fourth-year honor students. A lot of people need to take It, so It’s really rare for us to allow a student from another department In. There just isn’t enough space. I’m sorry,

S: Well… I see. Dr. Johnson, I have more than just a passing knowledge of history. You see, my father Is a real history buff. Even the bedtime stories he read me were related to history,

P: I can appreciate your interest. But, what if I allowed you Into the course and then a fourth-year student was unable to graduate? I wouldn’t be very popular with the students. Besides that, there are a lot of requirements one has to fulfill prior to getting Into my class.

S: Can I ask what they are?

P: Sure, There is a list of five classes. Let’s see, there’re Writing History, The Economics of War, Europe: An Overview and two others that I can’t remember. Students need to have completed at least three of those classes, and they need to have attained at least a B average.

S: Well … I’ve taken two of those classes, and I received A’s in both. Are there other requirements?

P: I wish that I could say that a keen Interest In the relationship between war and television was a requirement, but then I guess a lot fewer students would be allowed Into the class.

S: I wish it were required, too. You see, I’ve read all your papers on the topic. I really liked how you explained how television shows could change how people think about wars. Like, support for the Second World War peaked twenty years after the war because of the television shows about it that appeared during the sixties.

P: I have to say, Marc, I really wish I could let you into the class. You say that your interest In history comes from your father?

S: Right. I spent my entire childhood visiting museums and reading about history with my father. He loves It. I guess that’s why he became a history professor.

P: Wait. Singer. You aren’t John Singer’s kid, are you? Professor John Singer from State University?

S: Yeah. That’s my dad. But he’s not at State University anymore. He retired last year. Now he spends all his time working on a book about Alexander the Great.

P: OK. I’ll tell you what. I can’t let you Into the class next term because you’re short one required class. But, If you take one more history class next term, then I’ll do my best to get you Into my class two terms from now. How does that sound?

S: Sounds great. Thanks for your help.

P: Don’t thank me yet, Marc because although I’ll try my hardest to get you into the class, I can’t make any promises, ok?

S: Sure. Should I tell my dad you said hello?

P: Please do. And come back next term sometime. We can talk more then.


N Listen to part of a lecture from a biology class.

P: OK, uh, today we’re going to look at a very special insect. Its class is Insects, and Its order Is Hymenoptera, which means It has a winged membrane. Can any one guess what it is? No? OK. One more hint: Its genus and species is Apis melilfera scutellata. Anyone? Well … I guess you likely know its more common name, killer bee. Now, today we’re going to try to decide if this little bug deserves the name It has. The first question we should ask Is where did these bees come from. Actually, they exist because of a mistake that scientists made while trying to

crossbreed North American honeybees with more aggressive bees from Africa. Specifically, the African bees are from south of the Sahara Desert. The hope was that the new bee would be as safe as an average honeybee but be able to produce a lot of honey, like the African bee. But, In 1956, Brazilian scientists lost control of their new “Africanized” bees, which started to spread throughout South and Central America. By October of 1990, the killer bees were found In America, south of Texas.

So, what’s life like for the average killer bee? Well, there are four main stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Let me check my notes here … yes … an egg only needs twenty-one days to become an adult female worker, sixteen for It to become a queen, or about twenty-five days for It to become a drone. Remember, the drones are the male bees and it’s their Job to mate with the queen and defend the hive, but the females can attack, too. The hives can spread quickly, for a number of reasons. One, the queen can lay about 1,500 eggs In a day. When there are too many bees In the hive, they will swarm. Swarming means that a large number of them will fly away from the hive to form a new one. Now, the average honeybee hive will do the same thing. But, there are some important differences. One, honeybees will swarm only when they are overpopulated. Killer bees can swarm for the same reason, but also If the temperature is too warm or too cold. Also, and this is part of what makes them so dangerous, killer bees are much more aggressive when they swarm. If you are In the path of a swarm of them, you’ve got a seventy-five percent chance of a deadly attack.

  1. So, they’re dangerous. They attack when they swarm and If they feel the hive is in danger and even If they hear a loud high-pitched noise. Even worse, they will follow you for as much as a quarter mile to get you. Here’s something even stranger. If they are after you, don’t try to jump Into water thinking you’ll be safe. Killer bees may be slow fliers, but they’re not dumb. They’ll just wait above the water for you to come up for air. But, they are more dangerous to other bees than to us. Because they can spread so quickly and are much more aggressive, they can dominate an area, basically, uh, killing all the honeybees already there. OK. Think of it this way. Honeybees produce honey, which we eat, and wax, which we use for everything from candles to shoe polish. Most importantly, honeybees pollinate crops and flowers, which Is a big help to American agriculture. Killer bees produce a little honey and some wax, but It’s too dangerous to harvest. As they destroy native bee populations, killer bees affect our economy negatively.

What can we do? Well … some say we shouldn’t worry too much. But, others fear that the bees will adapt to colder cilmates and continue to spread north, wiping out honeybees as they go along. There have been attempts to Inject honeybee sperm into killer bee queens, In the hopes that they will produce less aggressive offspring. Yet, it hasn’t been done enough to know if it will really make any kind of difference. OK. So, killer bees do deserve their name, but mostly because they kill other bees. The problem Is that if they manage to kill enough of them, it’ll destroy our agricultural businesses.

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455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL IBT

455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL IBT

* Tips: User Command: (Control + F) with Window and (Command + F) with Mac OS to find the word which you want to know.

You can also download PDF file below here:

Download PDF 455 TOEFL Vocabulary

Here is the list 455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT

455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL IBT

455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL IBT

1 )Prev on(v): to hunt

2) astounding( adi) :amazing/incredible/unbelievable

3) resolute(adi):Determined

4) attain(v): reach 5 leschewtv): avoid

6)Coherent(adi):clear/understandable/intelligible 71Holistic(adi): refers to the whole

8) selective task(phr): multiple-choice task

9) Constructive task(phr):development task

10) thesis(n):opinion/position/claim

11) integral part of(phr):important/essential part of

12) agrarian(adj) related to fields and land and farmers

13) fertile(adj):good for growing/rich in nutrients/productive

14) Enervating(adj): exhausting

15) reliable(adj); can rely on

16) prosper(v):succeed/grow economically

17) assiduous(adj):hard working

18) undergo(v):experience/go or pass through

19) emancipated(adj) :free

20) envisage(v): visualize 21 )innovate(v):develop

22) trailblazer(n):leader/pioneer/pathfinder

23) wary(adj): watchful/cautious

24) versatile(adj): can be used in many ways

25)    inasmuch as(conj.):because/since/owing to the fact that

26)    fundemental(adj): basic/essential/central part of

27)    germinate(v):grow

28)    a myriad of(phr): lots /abundant /great number (e.g: a myriad of courses )

29)    a plethora of(phr):excessive/far too much or many/more than is practical or useful (e.g: a plethora of money problems)

30)    allude to(v): to refer to casually (e.g:in a presidential speech, obama alludes to his wife as his biggest influence in his life)

31)    analogous(adj):related to/connected to/comparable to ( e.g: TOEFL IELTS are analogous)

32)    connote(v): to give meaning beyond literal definition (e.g: breaking mirror connotes to bad luck)

33)    indeed(adv): without a doubt/in fact/certainly.

34)    quite(adv): very/exactly/really (e.g: that’s quite fascinating!/ that’s really fascinating!)

35)    Distractor(n): something that deviates attention/ an answer that looks right but actually wrong.

36)    harbinger(n):sign (e.g: snow is a harbinger of winter)

37)    perch(v);to rest or settle in a high place ( e.g:eagles perch on top of mountains)

38) precarious(adj): dangerous/doubtfull/not secure(e.g:the rope seems precarious,but it’s strong)

39)    quest(n): seek/looking for/search ( e.g: King arthur went on a quest to find the Holly grail)

40)    infer(v): to conclude from facts.

41)    thaw(v): to melt/change from ice to water/warm up

42) keen(adj): very sensitive

43) brood(n): young children of one family ( e.g: the mother bear moved her brood across the river)

44)    impecunious(adj):always poor

45)    bene volent(adj): generous/kind/ good

46)    inveterate(adj):established habit

47)    reimburse(v):pay back

48)    subsit on(v):live on

49)    quite the contrary(phr):the exact opposite

50)    all in all(phr):when everything is considered/in the final analysis/when all is said and done

51)    j udicious(adj): demeonstrating good j udgment

52)    insinuate(v): suggest (The professor insinuated that Joe have to study harder)

53)    suffice it to say(phr):in short/it is enough to say/no more is needed to add

54)    posthumously(adv)rafter death (e.g: micheal jackson is as famous posthumously as he was alive)

55)    hue(n):color(e.g: van gogh used a myriad of hue)

56)    masterpiece(n):great work(e.g: Opera Carmen by george Bizet is a masterpiece)

57)    saturated(adj):dreanched/soaked/full of( That cup of tea is saturated with sugar)

58)    towering(adj):best of the best(James Joyce is a towering literary figure in the west)

59)    snub(v):ignore/avoid/shun( The actress snubbed her fan who wanted an autograph)

60)    mercurial(adj):changing unpredictably (A mercurial temper is a harbinger of trouble)

61)    palette(n): artist’s paint mixing box

62)    shimmer(v): flicker/shine/move like sunlight(I like to watch the sun shimmer on the lake)

63) unerring(adj):never making a mistake (stever jobs is an unerring genius for innovation and marketing)

64)    discombobulated(adj):confused/uncertain/not clear /preplexedt The esay prompt really discombobulated Heather)

65) Dwellig(n):home/place to live/abode

66) Inhabit(v):to live in

67)    Opulent(adj): demostrating great wealth ( some opulent houses are really quite astounding)

68)    Spartan(adj):simple/basic/frugal(Historians belive that the early humans lived a spartan life)

69)    Renounce(v):to give up ( he has renounced somking recently)

70)    Per Capita(phr):per person (what is the per capita income of your country?)

71)    Void of (phr):empty of (the desert is void of water sources)

72)    Contrivances(n):mechanial/electrical/fundemental domestic things

73) Novel(adj):new (noun:story) (The ipad was a novel idea)

74)    Environs(n):environment/place/area ( at night i would avoid certain streets and environs)

75)    Precipitation(n):rain/snow/hail

76)    Drought(n): long period of no precipitation/dryness

77)    Famine(n): extreme lack of food ( Somalia has been suffering from famine for 20 years)

78)    Omen(n): Sign ( Crows represent a bad omen)

79)    Render(v): change/transform/alter

80)    Arable(adj):good for farming( Some believe that an arable land is better than gold)

81)    Arid(adj):Dry/lacking moisture/no water( Arizona is an arid state)

82)    Abandon(v):to give up and leave (The enemy forces has abandoned their posts)

83)    Downfall(n): sudden loss of wealth and power (The king’s position was always precarious.His downfall could happen at anytime)

84)    Destitute(adj) Jacking everything (the people abandoned their land after drought asinmuch as they were left distitute)

85) Notorious(adj):famous for bad behavior.

86) Nefarious(adj):evil/very bad/wicked( El Capone was a notorious mobster who had many nefarious associates)

87)    Pervade(v): to enter all parts ( corruption has pervaded Chicago’s police department)

88) Ruthless(adj):no mercy

89)    Reign(v):to rule like a queen or king/control for a period of time/to excercise authority( Elizabeth the First of England reigned from 1558 to 1603)

90) Unquenchable(adj):always thirsty/unable to satisfy/always desiring more

91)    Repeal(v):seek justice ( Many US citizens want the government to repeal Marijuana laws)

92)    Turbulent(adj): chaotic (The arab world is living a turbulent time)

93)    Corruption(n):process of decay/immoral behavior/gain by breaking the law

94)    Placid(adj):calm and gentle (I love the scene of the placid lake during sunrise)

95)    shatter(v):to break in many pieces (The ball shattered the glass )

96)    Conglomerate(n):company with many large sub divisions of different industries( e.g:General Electric)

97)    Quadruped(n):movement using 4 limbs (cats and dogs are quadruped animals)

98)    Primate(n): mammals int he order of primates including humans and apes

99)    Cosmos(n):the universe <Galaxy :massive groups of stars>

100)    Black Hole(n): massive invisible hole in the space

101)    Comet(n): celestial body with a tail

102)    Asteroid(n): small planet sized rock

103)    Cataclysimic(adj):sudden and violent change/transformation/earth changing event

104)    Whereby(conj):in which (Marriage is an official process whereby a man and a woman agree to spend the rest of their lives together.)

105)    Precipitate(v):to cause to happen/to bring about/to change from one state to another(

106)    Abolitionist(n):one who wants to end something

107)    Cease(v):to stop

108)    Anathema(n): idea or object of great loathing

109)    Proposition(n):idea to be debated/proposed plan/focus on an argument

110)    Enflame(v):to make angry

111)    Antipathy(n): dislike for

112)    Secession(n):the process of leaving

113)    Indigenous(adj) :native

114)    Heretofore(adv):previously

115)    Monumental(adj):astounding/large and impressive/extremely significant

116)    Devastating(adj):to destroy/to shock and stun/to ruin completely

117)    Era(n) :famous time period

118)    Catch-22(id,n) trapped by opposing conditions/situation preventing a solution to a problem/ a no-win situation

119)    it goes without saying(phr):it is obvious/the facts are clear/as you can see

120)    persist with(v):to continue

121)    counter(v): to argue the opposite

122)    pull the plug(id,v):to end something/to cut off/to empty a sink or bath by pulling the drain plug

123)    Quandary(n):unable to decide

124)    Kill 2 birds with one stone(id,v): to do 2 things at the same time

125)    the icing on the cake(id,n):the best part,the amazing part,the good part

126)    pull through with flying colors(id,v):to succeed beyond expectations

127)    significant other(id): lover

128)    walk on air (id,v): to be extremely happy

129)    blow away(id,v): to be amazed/to be astounded/to feel shocked

130)    gratis(adj):free

131)    Painstaking(adj) :difficult process

132)    overwhelemed(adj):feeling buried/feeling too much pressure/feeling out of control

133)    feel like a fish out of water(id,v):to be in the wrong place/to feel out of context/to know you don’t fit in

134)    overcome(v):to defeat

135)    take the bull by the horns(id,v):to take control/to take responsibility/to face a challenge directly

136)    misgivings(n):feelings of doubt

137)    pack it in(id):to surrender/to quit/to pack one’s bag and leave

138)    truly(adv):really/indeed/yes

139)    cherish(v):to value always (I cherish our friendship very much)

140)    there and then (adv): at the moment

141)    esteemed(adj):respected

142)    regard(n): consideration for/attention to/respect for

143)    Disintegration(n):to disintegrate/to fall apart/to dissolve completely

144)    the 64,000$ question(id,n):the big question/the only question/the obvious question

145)    recincarnation(n):rebirth after death

146)    figment(n): something imagined

147)    expiration(n):end/death/termination

148)    contemplation(n):act of thinking

149)    transfiguration(n): change in shape or figure/change in appearance or look/process of transfiguring

150)    manifestation(n):act of revealing

151)    address(v):to deal with/to answer an issue/to speak directly to

152)    breach(v) :break

153)    remedy(n0: solution

154)    apoplectic(adj):very angry

155)    get wind of the fact that (id,v):to receive information

156)    jurisdiction(n):territory where a law applies( NYPD has no jurisdiction over New Jersey)

157)    Negligent(adj):careless/failing to perfom/lacking attention to duty

158)    Recourse(n):choice/plan of action/direction to follow

159)    Sue(v): to see money for damages

160)    Stipulated(adj):item required by a contract/object in question/the agreed to point

161)    Seminal(adj) :the very first

162)    Assembly line(phr):moving or conveyor belt in a factory/chain moving in a circle

163)    essentially(adv):basically

164)    substantially(adv):greatly

165)    behemoth(n/adj) :huge/massive/mosntrous

166)    symbol(n);sign with meaning

167)    indomitable(adj): cannot be conquered

168)    doomed(adj):destined to disappear

169)    susceptible(adj) :open to/vulnerable to/defenseless

170)    coalesce(v): to come together as one

171)    firgid(adj) :very cold

172)    perish(v): to die/vanish/disappear

173)    owing to the fact that(phr) rbecause/since/inasmuch as

174)    tragic(adj): great misfortune/disaster/cataclysmic

175)    iconic(adj): symbol of /representation of/sign of

176)    genesis(n);the beginning

177)    arguably(adv) :that which can be argued

178)    incorporate(v) :to become a public company

179)    take root(v):to begin to grow

180)    crucible(n):place where forces meet/place of great heat/bowl used for melting objects

181)    inventiveness(n):good at creating/ability to invent/talent for making new things

182)    frontier(n): where civilization ends/border/point of transition

183)    savage(adj)destructive

184)    jack-of-all-trades(id,adj):can do many things well

185)    quintessential(adj):the best or perfect example/the most illustrative example

186)    herd(v):to group together

187)    none more so than(phr):there is no better example

188)    self-reliant(adj): independant

189)    archetype(n):original model or type

190)    sublime(adj):God-Like Beauty

191)    pod(n);small group of whales/dolphins/seals

192)    matrilineal(adj): following the mother

193)    transient(adj):temporary/one who always moves about

194)    Contrary to the Popular Belief(phr):against what is true/what most think/agree with what is true

195)    appellation(n):name

196)    stocky(adj): short and heavy

197)    life span(phr):the length of a life

198)    ratify(v):to approve/to confirm/to put your stamp on

199)    absolute(adj):pure/not limited/total control of

200)    apace(advO:rapidly with no purpose

201)    confound(v): to frustrate

202)    venerate(v):to worship

203)    Bum the candle at both ends(id,v):to work late and long

204)    Come with the territory(id,v):to be part of the job

205)    Put one’s nose to the grindstone(id,v):to focus on what is important

206)    Ace(v):to do extremely well

207)    Keep one’s eye on the prize(id,v):to focus always on what you are working for

208)    Push the envelope(id,v):to go to the extreme

209)    Give it one’s best shot(id,v):to try one’s best

210)    Conviction(n): strong belief

211)    Kick back(id,v) :to take it easy

212)    R and R(id,n) :rest and relaxation

213)    Pragmantic(adj) :prefers logic to emotions/practical/black and white

214)    Engmatic(adj):mysterious

215)    Have both feet on the grounded,v):to be pragmatic

216)    Cynic(adj):one who does not trust selfless acts

217)    have one’s head in the clouds(id,v):to feel romantic

218)    very much the(adv):definitely/really/totally

219)    what one would call(phr):an example or illustration or definition of

220)    diehard(adj): resolute/determined

221)    advent of(phr): introduction of /development of/invention of

222)    concurrent with(phr):conditionally

223)    wayward(adj):difficult/unpredicatble /capricious

224)    specious(adj): sounds convincing but lacks logic/misleading

225)    emblematic(adj):symbolic of/sign of/indication of

226)    malefaction(n):crime/violation/lawlessness

227)    brazen(adj):shameless

228)    boom(n):explosion/rapid expansion/fast growth

229)    wholesale(adj):complete/total/utter

230)    parasitic(adj):benefiting from another’s hard work

231)    double-edged sword(id,n/adj):when the outcome can be both positive and negative

232)    cost and arm and a leg(id,v):to be very expensive/extremely costly/unaffordable

233)    take one’s place in the spotlighted,v):to stand at the center of attention

234)    purport(v):to claim

235)    unadulterated(adj):untouched

236)    produce(n): fresh fruits and vegetables

237)    nevertheless(adv) :yet/nontheless/still

238)    bite the bullet(id,v): to do something unwillingly

239)    rampant(adj):out of control

240)    persnickety(adj):fussy/strict/fastidious

241)    bent out of shape(adj) :really angry

242)    cross the rubicon(id,v):crossing the point of no retum/to go too far/to cross a very big line

243)    Neanderthal(n/adj):early cave man/lacking culture/brain-dead guy

244)    ascertain(v):to discover with certainty

245)    transgression(n): violation

246)    multitude(n):many

247)    accumulate(v):to collect

248)    infringement(n): too close without permission

249)    sort(n): label

250)    feral(adj):wild

251)    prodigious(adj):extraordinary

252)    deem(v):judge

253)    cross(v): to pass/to breed-interbreed/cross feritlization

254)    harbor(v):have/possess/hold

255)    litter(n):group of new born animals/ trash/ pile of objects

256)    propensity(n):tendancy/need/ability

257)    sustenance(n):food/nourishment/comestibles

258)    Bioshpcrc(n) :area of world where life exists Pedospherefnf :area of world with soil/dirt/earth Geosphere(n):solid/rock based part of the earth studied by geologists Hvdrospherefn) :all water found on earth

259)    gourmand(n):food lover

260)    ground breaking (adj): seminal/original/revolutionary

261)    case in point(phr): for example/namely/specifically

262)    obtuse(adj): stupid

263)    conundrum(n):challenging problem/problem with no answer/puzzlement

264)    diffidence(n):no confidence

265)    albeit(adv) :but/although/though

266)    inscrutable(adj): impenetrable

267)    insurmountable(adj):impossible/cannot be conquered/unresolvable

268)    countencance(n) expression on one’s face

269)    ebullient(adj):always enthusiastic

270)    disconcerted(adj) :preplexed/embarrassed/ discombobulated

271)    nail(id,v): to answer correctly/to attain a goal/to target and hit

272)    take no prisoners(id,v): show no pitty or compassion or weakness

273)    all manner of (adj):all kinds of/myriad of/great variety of

274)    widget(n):name of a non specific product or contravince

275)    peddle(v):to sell

276)    budding(adj):young and learning

277)    expand one’s horizons(id,v):to explore new territory

278)    rake in (id,v): to make a lot of money

279)    resurrect(v): to bring back from the dead/ to give new life/ to make new again

280)    stigmata(n) marks

281)    peruse(v): examine carefully

282)    salient(adj):one that rises above the rest

283)    mince words(v):to be uncertain/to render incomplete/to soften one’s words

284)    epiphany(n):innate moment of realization/sudden revelaton/personal discovery

285)    boon(n):benefit

286)    disingenious(adj):insincere

287)    expediency(n): convenience

288)    bevy of (phr):a myriad of/many/a lot of

289)    expunge(v): to delete totally

290)    ersatz(adj):fake(german)/knock of/forgery

291)    vemacular(n):mainstream/native/indigenous language

292)    jargon(n):code for special applications

293)    aficionado(n):fan

294)    voracious(adj):always hungry

295)    murky(adj):not clear

296)    territorial(adj):protective of one’s land

297)    attribute to(v):to give credit to/to acknowledge/to give benefit to

298)    zenith(n):highest point/opposite of nadir/the absolute top

299)    laissez-faire(phr):free market buisness model

300)    impugn(v):to attack

301)    epitome(n):quintessence

302)    equanimity(n) realm

303)    placate(v):to assuage/mollify/pacify

304)    resplendent(adj):brilliant and amazing

305)    impervious(adj):invulnerable to attack

306)    harangue(n/v):long,angry lecture

307)    rancor(n):anger

308)    Persevere(v):to keep going despite obstacles or discouragement/to maintain a purpose ( Perseverance is noun/Persistent is adj.) (e.g:Researchers in meteorology persevere in studying and predicting tsunami behavior.)

309)    Plunge(v):to go down suddenly/to decrease by great amount in short time.(e.g:He jumped of the diving board and plunged into the pool./The value of the company’s stocks plunged after its CEO’s resignation./He plunged the box of candy during his visit to his aun’t house./Many believe that it’s cruel to plunge live lobsters into boiling water.)

310)    Cultivation(n):preparing the land to grow crops/improvement for agricultural purposes.(e.g: With the development of land cultivation,hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place. Cultivate(v) – e.g: The farmers use various methods to cultivate the crops.)

311)    Intensify(v):to increase in power/to act with increased strength.(e.g: Several human rights agencies has intensified their efforts to fight child abuse worldwide.)

312)    Irrigation(n):to supply water to dry land.(e.g:In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland for irrigation.)

313)    Adversely(adv):in a harmful way/negatively (e.g:Excessive rainfall can adversely affect the planting of crops.) ( adverse adj ./adversity n.)

314)    Feature(n):part/characteristic. ( e.g: The best feature of this computer is its processor’s speed.)

315)    Inherent(adj):naturally characterisitc/always found within something/basic part of something.(e.g: No job can be interesting all the time.Boredom is inherent in any kind of work.)

316)    Constraint(n):something that restricts thought or action.(e.g: The constraints of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morrison more than once a month.)

317)    Deplete(v):to greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material.(e.g: Stemous excercise depletes the muscle from its glycogen stores.)

318)    Dispose of(v):to throw away/to get rid of/to kill.(e.g:The mobster cruelly disposed of all his enemies./I’m going to dispose of my unwanted posessions before moving to my new apartment.)

319)    Emission(n): sending out a small space into the general environment/a substance discharged into the air. (The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of pollutants into the air.)

320)    Reservoir(n):A place where a liquid is collected and stored.(e.g: The town’s water

reservoir was built 2 years ago.)

321)    Shrink(v):to become reduced in size,amount,or value.(e.g:If you dry your clothing on the “high heat” setting,they may shrink.)

322)    Stable(adj.): firm and dependable/showing little change, (e.g: He fell because the ladder wasn’t stable./He is in a stable condition.)

323)    Adjust(v):to change/get accustomed to something.(e.g:It took him time to adjust to his new house./ Travelers are advised to adjust their watches before arriving in the new time zone.)

324)    Arbitrary(adj):chosen simply by whim or chance/not for any specific reason.(e.g:The decision to build a school in Blackberry Township was arbitrary,without any thought to future housing patterns. Arbitrate v./arbitrator n./arbitrarily adv.)

325)    Denominator(n):the number written below the line in a fraction/ the most basic and unsophisticated things that most people share.

326)    Exponentially(adv): at very fast rate.(e.g:The value of the Egyptian Pound has decreased exponentially in the last five years.)

327)    Infinitesimal(adj):Immeasurably small.(e.g:The number of contaminants in the water infinitesimal,so the water was safe to drink.)

328)    Parallel(adj):being an equal distance apart everywhere.(e.g:The street where i live runs parallel to the main road though town.)

329)    Proportion(n): a part in relation to the whole.(e.g:The average employee spends a large proportion of each workday answering e-mails.)

330)    Rate(n):the cost per unit of a good or service/the motion or change that happens in a certain time.( Telecommunication rates in Lebanon are among the highest in the world./Some grasses grow at the rate of one inch per day.)

331)    Sequence(v):to organize or arrange in succession.(e.g; Volunteers has been asked to sequence the files and organize the boxes.) ( sequence n. : the order of something/sequentially adv.)

332)    Adjacent(adj):next to. (e.g:Even though the villages are adjacent to each other, their residents speak different languages.)

333)    Compress(v): to press together.(e.g: Winrar is a computer software used to compress files.)

334)    Feasibly(adv)practically/in a way that can work.(e.g: Scientists can’t feasibly bring energy from deep ocean currents to where it is needed-on land)

335)    Gut(v):to empty or hollow out.(e.g:In order to remodel the house,we must first gut it and throw away all the old fixtures.)

336)    Integrally(adv):In a whole or complete manner(e.g: Writing and spelling are taught intergrally as a part of the reading program.)

337)    Overlap(v): to lie over part of something/to have elements in common.(e.g: One of the 2 assistants will likely get fired, since most of their duties in the office overlap.)

338)    Retain(v): to keep or hold (e.g: The rain fell so heavily that the banks of the river could not retain all the water.)

339)    seep(v):to pass slowly for a long time,as a liquid or gas.(e.g: As th containers rusted, the toxic waste seeped into the ground.)

340)    Structure(n): Something constructed, such as a building.(e.g:Most companies have a social structure that can’t be understood by outsiders.)

341)    Corrode(v):to be slowly weakened by chemical reactions.(e.g: Sitting in salt water,the old coins corroded and became very easy to break.)

342)    Derive(v): to come from,usually through a long,slow process.(e.g: The Cyrillic alphapet was dervied from the Greek alphabet.)

343)    Detection(n):Discovering something that cannot easily be found.(e.g: With new medical technology, the detection of cancer is much easier nowadays.)

344)    Expeditiously(adv):Quickly ad efficiently(e.g: Using carrier pigeons, the militay

commaders exchanged messages expeditiously.)

345)    Implementv):to make use of/to carry out.(e.g: Not until after the new software was installed could we implement the new filing system.)

346)    Installation(n): Setting something into position for use.(e.g:Installation of the ew software takes only four minutes.)

347)    Simulation(n):An imitation or representation.(e.g: To test car safety,automobile makers study crash simulations.)

348)    Convey(v):to transport from one place to another/to transmit or make known(e.g: A messenger conveyed the prince’s letter to the commander of the army.)

349)    Discretely(adv):separately/distinctly(e.g:in order to understand how the engine worked, each component needed to be studied discretely.)

350)    Permeate(v):to spread or flow throughout/to pass through or penetrate(e.g:The smell of cooking permeated the entire apartment building.)

351)    Rotate(v):to turn around/to take turns in sequence.(e.g:The planet rotates on its acis once every 14 earth days.The children rotate classroom responsibilites on a weekly basis.)

352)    Trigger(v):to set off or initiate.(e.g:I was certain any mention of politics would trigger a big argument.)

353)    Acquisition(n):the act of taking possession of something.(e.g: Our recent acquisition of over 2000 books makes our biggest library in the region.)

354)    Consciously(adv):with awareness of one’s actions.(e.g: He may have hurt her feelings,but henver would have done so consciously.)

355)    Degrade(v):to reduce in value or strength.(e.g:The roads in cold or wet areas of the united states degrade faster than those in warm,sunny regions.)

356)    Indisputable(adj):beyond doubt/unquestionable(e.g: The members of the jury found her guilty because they found the facts of the case indisputable.)

357)    Intervene(v);to come between.(e.g:A good mediator intervenes only as much as necessary to settle a dispute between other parties.)

358)    Intuitively(adv):By means of a natural sense about things that are hard to observe(e.g:Many mothers know intuitively when something is wrong with their children.)

359)    Recede(v):to move back or away from.(e.g:After the age of 30,his hairline began to recede further back from his forehead.)

360)    Retrieve(v);to bring or get back(e.g:Most dogs can be trained to retrieve objects that their owners have thrown.)

361)    Agnostic(adj):Believeing that humans cannot know whether there is a God.(e.g:His devoutly Christian parents had problems with his agnostic beliefs.)

362)    Animism(n):the belief that natural objects,such as trees,have souls.(e.g:Desert cultures that practice animism often believe that winds contain spirits.)

363)    Athiest(n):one who does not believe int he existence of a supreme being.(e.g: he argued that his scientific training made it impossibe for him to be anything but an athiest.O

364)    Be inclined to (v):to favor an opinion or a course of action.(e.g: He couldn’t say which candidate he favored,but he had always been inclined to vote Republican.)

365)    Deify(v0:to worship as a God.(e.g: When peiple deify the leader of their country,the leader is able to abuse power more easily.)

366)    Ecclesiastical(adj)relating to a church(e.g:He was looking specifically for a university where he could study ecclesiastical history.)

367)    Exalt(v):to praise or honor(e.g:He would often exalt the virtues of his new wife.)

368)    Pious(adj):having or exhibiting religious reverence.(e.g:Sometimes she was so pious that the rest of us felt like heathens)

369)    Heathen(n): A follower of a polytheistic religion; a pagan .derogatory. A person who does not belong to a widely held religion (esp. one who is not a Christian, Jew, or Muslim) as regarded…: “bringing Christianity to the heathens”

370)    Decrepit(adj):weakened or worn out because of age,illness,or excessive use.(e.g:The

once-beautiul building was now dirty,decrepit,and roofless.)

371)    Aggravate^):to make worse/to angeror intensify.(e.g:Running will aggravate your sore knees.)

372)    Augment(v):to make bigger or better by adding to.(e.g: In some types of popular cosmetic surgery people augment parts of their bodies/The college augmented its course offerinsgs because students complained tht there were too few choices.)

373)    Certifiably(adv):In a manner that is officially recognized.(e.g:He couldn’t be institutionalizeduntil was declared certifiably insane.)

374)    Divination(n):Fortelling the future by finding the patterns in physical objects.(e.g: In Turkey, women offer divinations by reading the dregs from a coffee cup.)

375)    Haunt(v):To continually appear( in the form of a ghost)in the same place or to the same person.(e.g: Some say that ghost of Princess Hilda haunts this castle,appearing as a headless form while she plays the piano.)

376)    Intemmediary(n):Acting as an agent between people or things.(e.g: The plantiffs lawyer suggested that they hire an intermediary to help them discuss their case.)

377)    Invoke(v):to call for support.(e.g: In many religions,believers invoke their God by holding out their hands.)

378)    Self-perpertuating(adj):Having the power to renew oneself for indefinite period of time.

379)    Assimilate(v):to consume and incorporate/to become similar.(e.g:Not all of the overseas students could assimilate into the rigidly controlled school.)

380)    Cremation(n):The act of burning the dead.(e.g: Cremation is particularly common in Japan,where land for burial is very limited.)

381)    Domesticate(v):to make something suitable for being in a home.(e.g:The Barnes family hoped to domesticate the tiger,but their neighbors were skeptical.)

382)    Folklore(n):traditional myths of a people transmitted orally.(e.g:Through folklore,archaeologists have learned about the migration of Native Americans in Noth America.)

383)    Fossilize(v):to become preserved in clay or stone or ash after death,sp that a natural record is left of the original organism/to become rigid and stuck in old ways.(e.g: The dinosaur eggs had fossilized over thousands of years.)

384)    Relic(n):something left from a long ago culture,time period or person.(e.g:Relics of the war can still be found in the sand dunes along this shore.)

385)    Rite(n):a ceremony meant to achieve a certain purpose.(e.g:Many cultures have fertility rites that supposedly makes it more likely for women to bear children.)

386)    Saga(n):a long story about important events long ago.(e.g:Many American families tell sagas about their ancestors’ arrival in the United States.)

387)    Vestige(n):A visible trace that something once existed.(e.g: The wilted flowers were the only vestige of their romantic weekend.)

388)    Amend(v):to change for the better.(e.g: The residents voted to amend their neighborhood policy on fences.)

389)    de facto(adj):truly doing a job,even if not officially.(e.g:Popular support established the Citizens Party as the de facto government.)

390)    Notion(n):a belief.a fanciful impulse.(e.g:The notion that older office equipment is unreliable is the inaccurate./One morning,she suddenly took the notion to paint her kitchen red.)

391)    Prej udiced(adj): causing to j udge prematurely and unfairly, (e. g: Manu consumers are prejudiced against commercial goods made in third-world countries.)

392)    Distinctly(adv):clearly(e.g: I distinctly remeber saying that we would meet at noon.)

393)    Erudite(adj):highly educated.(e.g: Even though Stella was only a freshman,she was considered erudite by both her classmates and her professors.)

394)    Fortify(v):to strengthen.(e.g: The high priced drink had extra vitamins and minerals

to fortify the body.)

395)    Implicity(adv): without being tated/unquestioningly(e.g:By joining the competition,she agreed implicity to the rules.)

396)    Parochial(adj): restricted in outlook/relating to the local parish.(e.g:Marla moved from her rual community to get away from its parochial thinking. Sending your children to a parochial school can cost as much as sending them to college.)

397)    Rigor(n):Strictness/difficult situations that come from following rules strictly.(e.g:The wrestler followed his diet with rigor./The rigors of military life toughned the young men quickly.)

398)    Roster(n):a list especially of names(e.g:2 names on the roster were misspelled.)

399)    Eloquently(adv):Characterized by persuasive, powerful discourse: an eloquent speaker; an eloquent sermon./ Vividly or movingly expressive: a look eloquent with compassion.

400)    Allegiance(n):loyalty.(e.g: My allegiance to my country is based on respect for its principles.)

401)    Hierarchy(n):a system of levels that places people high or low according to their importance.(e.g: Starting as a lowly private,Burt Jones gradually rose through the hierarchy of the army.)

402)    Annex(v):to make something(usually land) part of another unit.(e.g:Bardstown grew by annexing several farms at the north edge of town.)

403)    Conquest(n):a takeover by force or continued effort.(e.g:The first recorded conquest of Mt.Everest was by Tensing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hilary.) (conquer v.)

404)    Devise(v):to find an original way to make an object or a plan.(e.g: The soldiers devised a way ti cross the river into enemy territory.) (device n.)

405)    Prevailing(adj.) Strongest or most common (Prevail v./prevalence n.) (e.g:The prevailing attitude among our neighbors is to be friendly but not too friendly.)

406)    Milieu(n): General Environment or surroundings.(e.g: Many Vietnam veterans did not feel comfortable in the antiwar social milieu of the 1970s)

407)    Orwellian(adj):frightening and overcontrolled by a government that interfers in nearly every aspect of personal life.(e.g: Biometric devices like eye-scanners allow an Orwellian level of government knowledge about everyone’s location.)

408)    Reconciliation(n):coming back together peacefully after having been enemies.(e.g:South Africs avoided a bloodbath after apartheid by setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission.)

409)    Apartheid(n): A policy or practice of separating or segregating groups.

410)    Allocate(v):to give out different amounts for different purposes(e.g:The budget allocates $58billion to the military and only about $2billion to education.)

411)    Commodity(n): A thing that can be bought and sold,such as grain,oil,or wood.(e.g:Tulip Bulbs were one of the most Valuable commoditis in seventeenth-century Holland)

412)    Subsidy(n):Money Given by a government or other organization to support an activity.(e.g: Federal subsidies to grain farmers have helped them stay in buisness despite three years of bad weather.)

413)    Tangible(adj): obviously real because it can be seen,touched,or otherwise observed.(e.g: One tangible benefit of putting electrical cables underground is a clearer view of the sky.)

414)    Impoverish(v); to make a person or group poor.(e.g: The collapse of the steel industry impoverished several countries in eastern Ohio.)

415)    Proprietor(n):Owner, usually of a buisness or a building, (e.g; The proprietor of Hekman’s Windows is Nels Hekman,grandson of the people who established the factory.)

416)    Exploit(v):to take advantage of/to treat inconsiderately in order to profit(e.g:The company tried to exploit the low interest rates to expand operations.)

417)    Incentive(n): A possible benefit that motivates a person to do a certain thing.(e.g:

This city’s willingness to support its public schools gave us an incentive to move here with out two young children.)

418)    Marginal(adj):Not very significant or effective.(e.g:Our new advertising campaign had only marginal success,raising sales by a mere 3 percent.)

419)    Merit(n):value/success based on one’s work,not on luck.(e.g: Pay raises at our company are based on merit,as determined by a committee of managers.)

420)    Distill(v): to remove one liquid froma mixture of liquids by boiling;to get something valuable from a confusing mix of ideas.(e.g: The forest people of Southeast Asia distill an alcoholic drink called arak from a paste of palm berries./Most studetns are confused by her lectures,but Joe can always distill ger main idea.)

421)    Intrepid(adj):fearless(e.g: for nearly 200 years,only the most intrepid colonists would cross the Appalachian Mountains.)

422)    Haggle(v):to argue back and forth about a price.(e.g:The customer and the shopkeeper haggled over the silver plate for more than an hour.)

423)    Shuttle(v):to move back and forth between 2 places.(e.g:The small jet shuttles between Kuala Lampur and Singapore nearly every 2 hours.)

424)    Bitterly(adv): Strongly and wih a lot of bad feelings.(e.g: Senator Thomas bitterly opposed the movement to design a new state flag.)

425)    Inaugurate(v):to bring into public office/to start formally.(e.g: The US president is elected in November,but is not inaugurated until the following January.)

426)    Allegedly(adv):according to what people say.(e.g: The chief financial officer of the company allegedly took company’s money for his personal use.)

427)    Verdict(n): A judgement in a court case.(e.g: It took the jury only 30 minutes to reach a verdict of “guilty”.)

428)    Condemn(v):to speak out against something in very strong terms.(e.g: Religious radicals condemned the government for allowing alcohol to be sold in restaurants.)

429)    Bureaucratic(adj): related to a large organisation with a lot of complicated procedures.( implies that something is inefficient and unnecessarily complicated.)(e.g:Before I could speak with the chief, I had to go through a bureaucratic runaround of identity checks and written requests.)

430)    Assail(v):to criticize or attack forcefully.(e.g:With DNA evidence from the crime scene, the defense lawyer assailed the police for falsely arresting his client.)(assailant n./assault n.)

431)    Implicate(v):to suggest that someone was involved in a crime or other wrong behavior.(e.g:No group claimed responsibility for the bombing,but the type of explosive used implicates the Heartland Freedom Militia.)

432)    Inquiry(n):investigation.(e.g: The FBI launched an inquiry into the relationship between organised crime and the trucking company.)

433)    Intrusively(adv):In a way that brings unwanted person or thing into someone else’s affairs.(e.g: The new consultant from company headquarters appeared intrusively at meetings,staff parties,and other functions where he was not wanted.) (intrude v./intruder or intrusion n./intrusive adj.)

434)    Evade(v): to get away from something that tries to catch you.(e.g: The robbery suspects tried to evade the police by fleeing to Canada.)

435)    Grotesque(adj):extremely unattractive,in a way that catches a lot of attention.(e.g: Spending $3.5million to redecorate the governor’s house is a grotesque misuse of public money.)

436)    Coerce(v):to force/to put pressure on someone to do something.( e.g: A criminal’s confession is not usable in court if the police coerce him or her into giving it.)(coercion n./coercive adj.)

437)    Predicament(n): a difficult situation,one that is hard to get out of. (e.g: College

basketball player of wanting to graduate but being tempted by high professional salaries.)

438)    Distort(v): to twist or misinterpret/to make something seem different from what it really is.(e.g: If you hold a pencil in a glass of water, the water distorts the appearance of the pencil.)

439)    interdict(v);to keep something from reaching a certain place.(e.g: With faster patrol boats,the Coast Guard can more easily interdict drugs being smuggled by sea.)

440)    Juxtapose(v):Place next to one another.(e.g: If you juxtapose these two similar flowers,you can see clear differences between them.)

441)    Subtly(adv):in a quiet,hard to notice way(e.g:By subtly changing the soft drink’s formula,we improved its taste and made production cheaper.)

442)    Sentiment(n):feelings/opinion based on feelings.(e.g:I share your sentiments about air travefbut i disagree that cars are safer.)

443)    Clique(n):A small group of friends who are unfriendly to people outside the group.(e.g:High-schoolers form cliques to security and acceptance.)

444)    Confide(v): to tell personal things.(e.g:Teenagers are more willing to confide in a friend than in a parent.)(confidant n./confiedence n./ confidential adj.)

445)    Despondent(adj):Extremely sad and without hope for the future.(e.g: After his girlfriend left him,Johnson was despondent and wouldn’t talk to anyone.)

446)    Devotion(n):willingness to keep supporting someone you admire.(e.g: Grant showed great devotion to his wife,supporting her long illness.)

447)    Engender(v):to bring into being/to cause to exist.(e.g:The government’s warnings about terrorism engendered fear throughout the nation.)

448)    Berate(v): to say insulting and disrespectful things.(e.g:The teacher lost his job because he cruelly berated students who made mistakes.)

449)    Contemptuous(n):having no respect(e.g:most scientists are contemptuous of reports that aliens from outer space have landed on the Earth.)

450)    Vitriolic(adj):showing and extreme,hateful anger.(e.g: The mayor’s vitriolic attacks against the city council only made him sound unreasonable.)

451)    Deliquency(n);serious misbehavior/not ding what one should do(e.g: because of his laziness and deliquency,Lefty was unreliable friend.)

452)    Fringe(n):edge/in social contexts,parts of society that look or act very different from most people.(e.g:Punk music fot its start at the fringe of London’s rock music culture.)

453)    Hedonistic(adj)excessively seeking pleasure.(e.g:Suddenly wealthy,Allen fell into a hedonistic life of parties,expensive dinners,and heavy drinking.)

454)    Abstract(adj):not concrete and realistic/not obviously related to everyday experience.(e.g:Abstract painting became popular partly because early photography was very realistic.)

455)    Depict(v):to show in pictures.(e.g: Micheal Angelo’s painting on the eiling of the Sistine Chapel depicts nine scenes from the Bible.)

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Download PDF 455 TOEFL Vocabulary

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Everything You Need to Know About the TOEFL Exam Pattern, Explained

Everything You Need to Know About the TOEFL Exam Pattern, Explained

Do You Have Questions About TOEFL Exam Pattern? Learn About All 4 TOEFL Sections Here!

When you think of the TOEFL, do you have lots of questions?

Are you wondering what exactly the TOEFL is?

Are you wondering which English language skills it will test?

Welcome! That is exactly what we are going to discuss here.

The TOEFL is an internationally recognized Test Of English as a ForeignLanguage. It is a long test that usually requires several months of study and preparation. And, if you are reading this post, I imagine that you probably need to take TOEFL.

Maybe you are going to study in a foreign country. Maybe you will work for an international company.

Great! It is natural to have many, many questions about TOEFL, its format and the overall exam pattern.

The first step towards success is understanding what it will ask you to do.

Understanding the TOEFL exam pattern is necessary, because it will help guide your preparation for the test. To study productively and get a good score, you really need to understand what to study for!

Every TOEFL section (there are four sections in total) has specific questions and tasks. You may have never seen some of these questions and tasks before in your English classes, so it is very important to get some practice with them before your test day.

The topics that are discussed and the specific questions that are asked will change all the time—but the format of the TOEFL never changes. The test always has the same format! That is why the following information is very important.

Everything You Need to Know About the TOEFL Exam Pattern, Explained

Everything You Need to Know About the TOEFL Exam Pattern, Explained

Everything You Need to Know About the TOEFL Exam Pattern, Explained

The TOEFL consists of four sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing.

The 4 Major Sections of the TOEFL

The Reading section (60-100 minutes long) assesses your ability to understand and analyze written texts on topics like science and academic discussions.

The Listening section (60-90 minutes long) makes sure you can understand information given to you orally—for example, when you listen to a lecture or speak to a professor at university. This section has four to six lectures and questions that test your understanding of the content, as well as your understanding of the motivations and emotions of speakers.

The Speaking section (20 minutes) consists of six tasks that you complete by talking into a microphone during the test. It is meant to measure how well you can express your thoughts and ideas in English.

And finally, the Writing section (50 minutes) is all about demonstrating how you can use your English in writing. Here, you will apply your knowledge of grammar and vocabulary and form clear sentences and paragraphs.

Each section has a maximum score of 30, so the maximum TOEFL score overall is 120. This means that 120 is a perfect score.

The TOEFL is a test that you will take all in one day. It is four and a half hours long with one short break in the middle, between the Listening and Speaking sections. Here are a few more details that you should know about taking the test:

  • You are allowed to take notes during the test. You will be given plenty of scratch paper and a pencil—use them during the Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing sections. You must give all the notes and unused paper to exam officers when you finish the test and leave! 
  • You can bring a snack and a drink to have during the 10 minute break.
  • If you need to go to the bathroom or take another small break during the test, you can…but the test clock will not stop for you!
  • Of course, no cell phones, tablets or other devices will be permitted into the room under any circumstances. You cannot use them during the official break either (sorry).

Now, what should you expect from each of the TOEFL sections?

What Is the TOEFL Reading Section Like?

The Reading section presents you with three to five academic passages (pieces of text from academic texts or talks), each approximately 700 words long. The passages may be talking about a certain topic or about comparing several points of view. They can be scientific, historic and even philosophical.

Each text will be followed by 12-14 questions. These questions may ask you to do one of the following tasks:

  • define a word (testing your vocabulary)
  • identify an idea or argument (testing your understanding)
  • find a false statement (testing overall comprehension)

You will have from 60 to 100 minutes to complete this section depending on the number of passages and accompanying questions.

The Reading section is a demanding one. It can be difficult, because the texts you will get are often complex—you should not hope for an easy passage with easy vocabulary.

To do well, you need to be used to reading long and complicated paragraphs. You should learn to work with unfamiliar words to be able to infer (make a guess about) their meaning. Texts presented in the Reading section may have multiple focuses and arguments. The time limit also creates difficulty, as you will have to read fast.

What Is the TOEFL Listening Section Like?

During Listening, you will be working with two different types of audio:

  • recordings of lectures
  • recordings of conversations

You should expect to listen to four to six lectures that deal with academic topics. Conversations are more casual, so there are usually only two to three of these.

Each bit of audio can be from three to five minutes long, followed by five to six questions. The questions may ask you about the contents of the recording. They may also ask you about what you think happened before or what could happen after. There could also be the “why” and “how” type of questions.

You will hear every audio lecture or conversation only once. There is an exception: Some questions will play back a part of the recording for you to listen to again. However, you cannot depend on this. You should expect to only hear the audio once.

Hearing something only once is the major difficulty with the Listening section. This is why you will need to take good notes and make educated guesses about what questions you could get.

Understanding conversational English is also one of the hardest tasks for English students, so it is very important to get used to listening to many types of talks and dialogues. The TOEFL has a policy of including different English accents in the Listening section—you could hear American, British, New Zealander and Australian English on the test! Try to listen to all these different types of English before taking the exam.

To prepare for Listening, seek out English-language movies, TV shows and YouTube videos (these are particularly helpful with understanding accents). Use FluentU as much as possible. Listen to recordings of lectures and practice taking notes during them. Be sure to expose yourself to many different kinds of English by watch American news and listening to British radio, too. Doing this regularly enough will improve your listening abilities without you even noticing.

Can I Take a Break?


TOEFL has a 10-minute break in the middle of the exam, and it is mandatory, which means that everyone must stop.

You will be asked to leave the room—and you should! Use this time to walk around, stretch your legs and your back, eat your snack and drink your beverage. Go to the bathroom, too!

10 minutes will fly by very quickly, and you really need them to rest, recharge and get ready for the second part of the rest. Taking a break makes it a bit easier to pace yourself. Reading and Listening are now behind you—forget about them.

After the break, it is time to start the Speaking and Writing sections.

What Is the TOEFL Speaking Section Like?

This is the newest addition to TOEFL. Can you imagine that only a few years ago test-takers did not have to go through it?

Now Speaking is an important part of the test. It judges your ability to speak good English and it can be quite hard. You will not have an interviewer to ask you questions and listen to your answers, you will only have a microphone. Your voice is recorded and someone will listen to your answers later.

There is very little time to answer each question, and there is even less time to prepare each answer before you start talking. Speaking is the hardest part of learning any language. You will do your best if you know what to expect from this section.

You will be given six Speaking tasks in total. Two of them will ask you to express an opinion on an everyday topic. This is the Independent Speaking section. For the Independent Speaking section, all you will hear is a question. You will not need to listen to a long recording or read any long passages.

The four remaining tasks will require you to discuss something that you read and hear. This is the Integrated Speaking section. For Integrated Speaking, you will read a short passage or hear an audio recording followed by a question. You will have up to 30 seconds to prepare a response and up to one minute to record it by speaking into a microphone.

This TOEFL section is the one where taking notes will be the most useful. Once you hear the question, write down some ideas to look at them when you speak. Practice your timing, but do not speak too fast, even though you may be nervous. Remember that your accent is not important—all that matters is that you speak clearly and present some good ideas in your answer. Breathe! You will do just fine.

What Is the TOEFL Writing Section Like?

All your English skills come together in the last section of TOEFL. This last section is the Writing section. It is the section that judges your writing ability, grammar knowledge and vocabulary usage.

Writing consists of only two tasks: one Integrated Writing task and one Independent Writing task.

The idea behind these tasks is similar to the Speaking section tasks. For the Independent Writing task, you will write an opinion on a casual topic. You will get a question to answer, but you will not need to listen to a long audio recording or read a long passage. To learn more about the Independent Writing section, click here.

For the Integrated writing task, you will write an essay based on additional reading and listening material. You will have more time (30 minutes) to spend on the Independent task than on the Integrated task (20 minutes), so you will be expected to deliver a very good essay on the former (the Independent task) and a slightly shorter answer on the latter (the Integrated test). Taking notes and creating an outline of your answer is very useful during both parts of the Writing section.

The only way to prepare well for TOEFL Writing is, of course, writing as many practice essays as possible.

Remember that your actual opinion does not matter in the Writing section. You can say that you love cold winters and that you hate ice cream, even if you do not. The people grading your essay will look at how well you support your argument and how well you explain your choice. The structure of the essay and clear, grammatically correct sentences are what matter most.

Practice writing essays with a proper introduction, main body and closing paragraph. Refresh your grammar. Learn to use connectors like “therefore,” “however,” and “although” to make your essay flow better. Do not try to use too many long words, especially if you are not sure what they mean. Go for quality, not quantity!


TOEFL is a hard test, there is no doubt about it. But you can succeed.

You should register for it well in advance, giving yourself at least three or four months to study and prepare well for it.

And be sure to take a complete TOEFL practice exam at least once. You’ll not only take a TOEFL practice exam that feels just like the real thing, you’ll also get feedback from certified TOEFL teachers and tons of interactive study tools. This is very important if you want to be fully prepared for the actual exam day.

The format of the test never changes, which is great news for you! This means that finding study help and resources is much easier.

You only need to learn about the format of the TOEFL once. Once you get it, you will be able to make up your own study schedule, focus on areas of your English to improve and ultimately increase your chances of success on TOEFL.

Happy studying!

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TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 18 Solution & Explanation

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 18 Solution & Explanation

Solution & Explanation for TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 18 ( From Barron’s TOEFL’S iBT)

Reading 1 “Rising Sea Levels”TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 18 Solution & Explanation

1. B In this passage, scale is a synonym for “range.” Context comes from the numbers in the following sentence, .. 10-20 cm____”

2. B In this passage, probably is a synonym for “likely.”

3. B The author mentions an iceberg “the size of Delaware” to impress the reader with the size of the icebergs. Choices A, C, and D are not noted in the reference to Delaware.

4. D “In response to the increasing warmth, the Antarctic Peninsula is sporting new vegetation growth.” Choices A and C are true, but they are not the reason for the new plant life. Choice B is not correct because the islands have appeared because of ice melt, not because the land masses have split.

5. B “About 8000 km of ice shelf are gone, changing maps, freeing up islands to circumnavigation, and creating thousands of icebergs.” Choice A is not correct because a rise in temperature breaks an ice shelf into icebergs. Choice C is not correct because the reference to islands relates to warmer temperatures and melting ice. Choice D is not correct because mountain glaciers that melt will cause a rise in sea level, not the creation of icebergs.

6. B Most of paragraph 5 is in quotation marks in reference to data in a study by the IPCC. Choice A is not correct because the author is quoting data from a source. Choice C is not correct because data on sea levels does not compare one area with another. Choice D is not correct because the author does not mention his studies when he is presenting the data.

7. A In this passage, definite is a synonym for “conclusive.” Context comes from the phrase “the clearest and best evidence” in the following sentence.

8. A The IPCC did not have the data paraphrases “… the new measurements… did not reach the IPCC.”

9. C “… people move away from coastal flooding from the sea-level rise.” Choice A is not correct

because the temperature on land is not mentioned. Choice B is not correct because the vegetation along the coastlines will die as seawater floods it. Choice D is true, but it is not the reason why people will migrate.

10. C The reference to “Particularly tragic social and economic consequences” in the last paragraph

gives an insight into the author’s opinion. Choices A and B are not correct because they are not directly expressed and cannot be concluded from information in the passage. Choice D is not correct because the breaking up of ice shelves and the melting of ice causes the sea levels to rise, not the new glaciers that are created when the ice shelves disintegrate.

11. D … small island states … among the impacts there [in the states].” Choices A, B, and C refer

to consequences, not to the location.

12. B Alphabetical order is a transitional device that connects the sentences. Larsen A, B, and C are

mentioned in order. The insert sentence is an introductory statement.

13. C, B, E summarize the passage. Choice A is an example that supports major point C. Choice D is a detail that supports major point B. Choice F is an example that supports major point C.

Reading 2 “Organic Architecture”

14. C “One of the most striking personalities in the development of early-twentieth-century architecture was Frank Lloyd Wright____Wright set out to create ‘architecture of democracy.’” Choices

A, B, and D are major points that support the main idea, the work of Frank Lloyd Wright.

15. C According to a quote by Wright, “This ideal [organic unity]… I called … continuity.” Choice A is not correct because it refers to classical architecture, not to organic architecture. Choice B is not correct because, although he considered organic architecture his ideal, he referred to it as “continuity.” Choice D is not correct because Wright rejected classic architecture.

16. A “Wright manifested his vigorous originality early, and by 1900 he had arrived at a style entirely his own [style].” The phrase “his own” does not refer to Choices B, C, or D.

17. C In this passage, created is a synonym for “conceived.” Context comes from the word “designed” in the previous sentence.

18. D In this passage, Discontinuing is a synonym for “Abandoning.” Context comes from the contrast of “symmetry” with the “spaces… grouped freely.”

19. B “Wright fully expressed these elements and concepts in Robie House.” Choice A is true but it is only orie of the original ideas expressed. Choice C is not correct because, although it is often true of Wright1 s designs, the accessories for Robie House were not mentioned in the passage. Choice D is not correct because the house was built between 1907 and 1909, but Wright did not live there during the construction.

20. A In this passage, the phrase most important describes “prime.” The word “prime” is often used with “example.”

21. C Because “the city lot constrained the building-to-site relationship” at “Robie House,” the

description of “Fallingwater” implies that it was better suited to the site. Choice A is not correct because “Fallingwater” was built after “Robie House.” Choice B is not correct because “Falling-water” extended the “Robie House” design in all four directions. Choice D is not correct because “Robie House” had many large and open spaces in the “wandering” floor plan.

22. B “.. . he acted on a cherished dream to provide good architectural design for less prosperous

people by adapting the ideas of his prairie house to plans for smaller, less expensive dwellings.” Choice A is not correct because the smaller, prairie houses were not designed specifically for Europe. Choice C is not correct because many younger architects adopted his designs, but he did not build prairie houses to help architects. The revolution in architecture mentioned in Choice D occurred, but it was not Wright’s purpose in building the smaller versions of his prairie designs.

23. A “The publication of Wright1 s plans brought him a measure of fame in Europe… and an exhibition of his designs [in Berlin]. . . stimulated younger architects to adopt some of his ideas.” Choice B is not correct because lectures are not mentioned in the passage. Choices C and D are correct, but they are not the reasons that Wright’s work became well known in Europe.

24. C The entrance in a prairie house was “all but concealed.” Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentence 5. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentence 7. Choice D is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentence 7.

25. B A general statement followed by examples is’a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the following sentences. The insert sentence introduces the examples of the relationship between interior and exterior spaces.

26. C, F, D summarize the passage. Choices A, B, and E are details of Wrighfs professional life that are not main points in the passage.

Reading 3 “New Women of the Ice Age”

27. B “Amassing critical and previously overlooked evidence . . . Softer [proposes] a technique of hunting previously invisible in the archaeological evidence.” Choice A is not correct because her theories “make her conservative colleagues cringe.” Choice C is not correct because conservative researchers concentrated on studies of tools and bones and used them to support their theories. Choice D is not correct because she uses not only modem cultural evidence but also archeological evidence, including small game bones and tools that could have been used to make nets.

28. B “Amassing … evidence from Dolni Vestonice and the neighboring site of Pavlov, researchers… propose that human survival there had little to do with men hurling spears at big game animals. Instead … it [survival] depended largely on women, plants, and a technique of hunting previously invisible in the archeological evidence.” The pronoun “it” does not refer to Choices A, C, or D.

29. C In this passage, suggestions is a synonym for “implications.” Context comes from the clause “they raise serious questions” in the same sentence-

30. B Because her views “make her conservative colleagues cringe,” it must be concluded that her views are not as conservative. Choice A is not correct because she disagrees about the role of women as hunters, not as caretakers. Choice C is not correct because she is identified as an authority on the Ice Age and as an archeologist, not as a biologist. Choice D is not correct because she is a leading authority on hunting and gathering in the Ice Age.

31. A In this passage, limit is a synonym for “constrain.” Context comes from the logical supposition in the same sentence.

32. D … historically paraphrases “In many historical societies” and not perilous paraphrases “nor… in physical peril.” …did not require great strength paraphrases “did not call for brute strength,” and women have been important participants paraphrases “women played a key part.”

33. D “‘Everybody and their mother could participate [in net hunting].’” Choice A is not correct because the Australian hunters were not fishermen, and there is no evidence that they developed it. Choice B is not correct because net hunting did not place young mothers in physical peril. Choice C is not correct because net hunting was used to capture game, not to protect the camp.

34. A The author mentions Native American and Aborigine groups to give examples of modem groups in which women participate in net hunting. Choice B is not correct because the author presents facts, not opinions. Choice C is not correct because the techniques do not place women in peril but they do not protect them, either. Choice D is not correct because the example of the people in the Congo reinforces the information about the Native American and Aborigine groups.

35. C “. . . Mbuti in the forests of the Congo report that they capture game every time they lay out their woven traps, scooping up 50 percent of the animals encountered.” Choice A is not correct because nets are valued more than bows and arrows. Choice B is not correct because they trade the surplus meat with neighbors. Choice D is not correct because vegetables are not mentioned.

36. B “… some of their inhabitants whittled bone tools that look much like the awls and net spacers…” Choice A is true but it is not mentioned as evidence. Choice C is not correct because Softer believes that net hunting was more widespread than these two sites. Choice D is not correct because the camps stretched from Germany to Russia, but the researchers from those areas were not mentioned.

37. D In this passage, functions is a synonym for “roles.” Context comes from the reference to “activities” in the same sentence.

38. C A conclusion based on evidence is a transitional device that connects the conclusion in the insert sentence to the evidence in the previous sentences. Choices A and B are not correct because the conclusion in the insert sentence would appear before the evidence. Choice D is not correct because the insert sentence would interrupt the relationship between the first and second sentences in the last paragraph.

39. B, D, F summarize the passage. Choice A is a minor point that is not developed. Choice C is a detail that is mentioned to support major point D. Choice E is true, but it is not mentioned in the passage.

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TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 24 Solution & Transcripts

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 24 Solution & Transcripts




2. A

3. A

4. C

5. D

6. C

7. C


9. D

10. C

11. C

12. B

13. D

14. C

15. B

16. D

17. B

18. B

19. A


Practical  Academic
Understand the dynamics of a small staff  X
Support his personal needs  X
Satisfy a requirement for his class  X
Save time on travel  X
Not Interfere with his class schedule  X

21. C

22. D

23. B

24. A, D


1  E. Snow covers the surface and melts and freezes.
2  A. Ice becomes grainy.
3  D. Granular ice turns into a thick glacial ice.
4  B. Force of upper layers of ice makes lower layers move.

26. C

27. B



Yes No
Drying out of lakes that are filled by runoff  X
Fomnation of new lakes from melting glaciers  X
Bursting of dams and reservoirs from excess runoff  X
Reduction of meltwater for agricultural purposes  X
Dying out of plants and animals dependent on glacieMed water  X

29. C

30. B

31. C

32. B

33. A, D

34. A

——————————————————————————-TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 24 Solution & Transcripts


N: NARRATOR              M: MALE STUDENT               F: FEMALE STUDENT

N: Listen to a conversation between two students.

M: So have you thought of an […………………………] to do a report on?

F: I was hoping you had one In mind.

M: As a matter of fact, I do, but I thought I’d give you the first shot. I was thinking of doing Aldo Rossi.

F: Aldo Rossi? The name sounds […………………………].

M: He Is Itaflan. He studied at the […………………………]University in Milan.

F: Weil, does he meet the […………………………]that the professor gave? I mean, he has to be an […………………………]architect. I’ve never even heard of him.

M: Well, maybe a lot of people have never heard of him, but he’s actually one of the most influential architects in the world, especially during the period […………………………] to […………………………].

F: Is that right? Well, what exactly did he […………………………]?

M: Um, It wasn’t |ust what he […………………………]as an architect, but his theory about how cities should be designed. Well, have you ever heard of 1he Carlo Felloe Theater in Genoa?

F: Uh, no.

M: The old Carlo Felice Theater was bombed in […………………………]. so Rossi was given the task of […………………………]the theater. Well, what he did was, he didn’t actually replace it. He kept the old […………………………], but he added new space and […………………………]to the theater. What I really like about this Is It shows his […………………………]for cities, for the history of a city and, um, keeping its memories […………………………],

F: Is this something that you see in a lot of his works—this respect for city?

M: Yes, that’s why I thought he’d make a good topic for our report. Since the professor wants us to highlight something special about the architect, I thought Aldo Rossi would be perfect. Actually, his […………………………]about cities is really beautiful.

F: OK, well, maybe we ought to start off our report by talking about this theory.

M: Yes, exactly, So why don’t we divide up the work now? I was thinking of […………………………]on the theory.

F: Is there enough Information about this theory for you to do a […………………………]report?

M: Sure! He even wrote a book on It. It’s called “The Architecture of a City,”

F: Well, It looks like you’ve been doing a lot of […………………………].

M: Actually, I had a couple of other architects in mind, but Rossi’s book made such good reading that I knew I wanted to do a report on him.

F: OK, great! So I guess you expect me to talk about some of his […………………………]works that support his theory?

M: Yes, and I’ve got some really wonderful buildings in mind. 


N: NARRATOR                 P: PROFESSOR

N: Listen to a talk on city planning In the United States.

P: Let’s start. OK, I’d like to talk about city planning in America. Uh … city planning is from […………………………] times. There Is evidence of street systems and neatly laid-out water […………………………]in […………………………]ancient cities. Well, what we want to learn is what affected […………………………] century American city planning.

When the […………………………]arrived in the New World, their big concern was […………………………]. Many of them had come from lands with severe economic problems, so the colonizers planned their cities […………………………]to support business. No one was assigned to do the planning. […………………………]of a town were designed by a family or even an Individual. So, city planning at the time was fairly […………………………], with the Spanish, French, Dutch and English […………………………] […………………………]their own plans In whatever […………………………]they had claimed. Obviously, these colonizers being European […………………………], the cities of Europe had a bearing on early city planning In America. Basically, European cities were designed for […………………………]and to allow for free movement of the […………………………]. You’ll find the same ideas In the cities of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts and New York. The colonizers used a […………………………]pian. This is a type of plan where the streets run at right […………………………]to each other, going north-south and east-west, Hence, grid. It’s […………………………]a very ancient plan … it was used In Babylon and In the […………………………]Peruvian city known as Chan Chan.

But uh … there came a point when change made it necessary for the colonizers to […………………………]the space available to them. You know, rapid development always […………………………]change. The Industrial Revolution, for example. Factories and plants […………………………]people living in rural areas … so when the population of the cities in the north […………………………], well, it became the city planners’ goal to keep the city from becoming […………………………]and dirty.

Now you remember the […………………………]layout? Well, that layout may have served Its purpose at the start when there were […………………………]people, but It caused problems in New York. It was a […………………………]that Ignored the natural […………………………]of the area, And It forced the direction of Manhattan’s growth to move […………………………]. Well, this  resulted in more […………………………]. And, In fact, the […………………………]layout was repeated in communities all over the nation with the […………………………]that cities In America were crowded and had health problems. So … city planners had to make […………………………]to prevent further […………………………]of the landscape. Sanitation became the primary focus. That made a new profession— […………………………]. Well, that was one change.

Another change … which was on the […………………………]side, cities had more […………………………]and gardens. Frederick Law Oimsted, a landscape architect, made city plans that Included a system of public parks. He designed parks for New York City, Buffaio, Niagara Falls, Boston, Louisville, Kentucky, and Chicago. His designs were a big […………………………]on American cities, which all have parks or some places for people to enjoy the […………………………]. Then there was the Frenchman Georges¬Eugene Haussmann. In his plans for the city of Paris, he designed wide avenues, parks and […………………………], and he saw to it that housing and sanitation, and water supply and […………………………]disposal … that these met the standards set by the government. Perhaps what stood out about Haussmann’s plan Is that he, he placed the […………………………]stations in a circle outside the old Paris and made very broad streets from the stations to the center of […………………………]. This allowed for better traffic flow. It was a plan that was meant to take social equity into […………………………], Haussmann Implemented zoning regulations that became a sort of […………………………]for city planners in America.

Well, let me just say that Haussmann wasn’t the […………………………]of those Ideas. The Homans had a […………………………]plan that incorporated proper drainage and clean water supplies. Rome as well as some cities In England had zoning laws. But the city planning of the past […………………………]the poor, who were […………………………]into less space … and when security was an Issue, this resulted in very […………………………]streets. The Renaissance brought […………………………]streets, but this wasn’t being Implemented on the whole—It was just certain […………………………]of European cities that enjoyed special […………………………].

New York City adopted zoning laws in […………………………]and these were constantly being […………………………]until It became the Regional Survey of New York and Environs of […………………………], which took Into consideration factors such as legal, social, economic … not Just […………………………]. You know, previously, if a local government wanted to […………………………]the design of a city, they simply replaced the older buildings with new ones geared for low and middle-lncome […………………………]. But, uh, with the Influx of people from the south, this […………………………]approach didn’t do anything to solve the problem of […………………………]and the consequences of overcrowding—slum areas. So the city planners learned that If you want a beautiful, functional city, you’re going to have to take the […………………………]aspect Into consideration. And it involves the planning of the whole city, not just a part of It. And to be able to do this, there has to be […………………………]between agencies and local governments.

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How to Master the TOEFL Independent and Integrated Writing Tasks

How to Master the TOEFL Independent and Integrated Writing Tasks

The TOEFL writing section, also known as the TOEFL essay section, is the last section of the test.

It comes after all the difficult steps of the TOEFL reading, listening and speaking tests. Showing that you know how to write well in English is crucial for your final test score.

The TOEFL writing section measures your ability to come up with a structured essay with clear arguments, while also checking your knowledge of English grammar and vocabulary.

How to Master the TOEFL Independent and Integrated Writing Tasks

How to Master the TOEFL Independent and Integrated Writing Tasks

What You Should Expect from the TOEFL Writing Section

The writing section consists of two writing tasks.

The first task combines elements of listening and reading. You may be asked to listen to a lecture excerpt or a recording of a conversation, or you may need to read a short text. Taking notes during listening and reading is allowed. After listening or reading, you must then answer a question based on the content.

The second task is an opinion essay, where you are asked to offer your thoughts on a general question. You will have a total of 50 minutes to complete both writing tasks.

Writing for either TOEFL task is certainly not easy!

Coming up with things to write with a timer on is often difficult and stressful. You need solid essay writing skills, and you need good general English writing skills. For the first task, your reading and listening skills need to be excellent. Last but not least, good English grammar is just as important for a good essay as vocabulary.

The writing section of TOEFL is challenging, true, but there is good news. You can practice and improve your writing skills even if you never thought you were good at writing! Read on for useful tips and tricks on how to excel at writing great TOEFL essays that will help you earn a top score of 5.

What Does a Perfect TOEFL Essay Look Like?

Before you begin improving your writing skills, you need to know how tostructure an essay properly.

Knowing how to write an essay will help you to present your thoughts in the most logical way possible.

Generally, a good TOEFL essay has four or five paragraphs.

The first paragraph clearly states the main idea or main argument of the essay. This main idea is also known as the thesis, and it should be part of every paragraph in your essay. The whole essay needs to relate directly to this thesis.

Then, the next two or three paragraphs after the first paragraph should elaborate on the thesis and explain your arguments very clearly. You should have many ideas, thoughts and examples to support your thesis in these paragraphs.

Finally, the last paragraph is a conclusion which restates the thesis and summarizes the arguments you presented in the essay. You will summarize everything here and make a big conclusion about your main idea. You must show how everything ties together and is related.

Now, how exactly do you divide your essay ideas into paragraphs?

A general rule is to try and dedicate one paragraph to one idea or one argument. You should not try to explain more than one idea in each paragraph. Be very focused, and take time to make each paragraph very clear. This way, your essay will follow a format that looks like this:

  • Paragraph #1: Thesis (main idea)
  • Paragraph #2: First argument to support the idea
  • Paragraph #3: Second argument to support the idea
  • Paragraph #4: Third argument to support the idea, a different perspective on your thesis or an opposing idea.
  • Paragraph #5: Conclusion (thesis restated)

Unlike the list above, your essay should not look like a collection of bullet points. Rather, you must write full sentences and full paragraphs. There also needs to be clear and smooth progress from one idea to another (good text flow).

Using conjunctive adverbs like “however,” “furthermore” and “nonetheless” is one of the easiest ways to introduce more flow to your essay. Subordinating conjunctions (“although,” “while”) will be helpful here too.

What will also assist you immensely is having a clear thesis to argue. It really is vital for you to decide exactly what you want to say before you start saying it.

It does not matter if your idea of thesis is very simple. In fact, it should not be too complicated, because you may run out of time trying to cover all your ideas if the main thesis is very complicated.

Having a simple, clear thesis will allow you to focus on ways to support it. Then you can pay more attention to using good grammar and vocabulary and presenting your arguments in a structured way throughout the essay.

Why Good Grammar Is Important for the Writing Section

Yes, you may hate studying grammar, but it is of the essence in the writing section!

These two essays are the only part of the test where your grammar knowledge is measured directly.

Speaking does measure your grammar to a lesser extent, but writing is the one section where poor grammar will most directly impact the quality of your essay and your overall score. (Interestingly enough, there used to be a separate grammar section in older versions of TOEFL, but this is no longer the case.)

When it comes to grammar usage on TOEFL, being correct is the most important. You may use complex verb tenses and clauses, but only do so if you are absolutely sure you are using them right. It is better to correctly use simple grammar than to incorrectly use complicated grammar.

There is not necessarily a need to use complex grammar in your essays, since arguments and examples may be laid out in Simple Past or Simple Present.

You may use gerund and simple conditional forms, but keeping it simple applies not only to your thesis, but to your grammar too. Play it safe and simplify if you are unsure.

Here are some essential grammar elements you might want to pay attention to and rely on in your essays:

  • Simple present and simple past: This is obligatory for you to get right. Know the correct verb endings, revise the irregular verb forms and practice catching small but alarming mistakes like “”People says” (“people” is plural so it should be “people say”).
  • Master the difference between present perfect and past perfect: Is it “I have been doing” or “I had been doing”? Both are correct forms of present perfect and past perfect, respectively, but you would use one or the other depending on context. Make sure you understand how.
  • Gerund and conditional tenses: These will enrich your essay, showing the grader that you are capable of using more complex clauses and expressing yourself in a variety of ways.
  • Minimize the use of passive voice: This will also help you with presenting your argument (for example, “British scientists have discovered” sounds stronger and more authoritative than “It has been discovered”).

Why Good Vocabulary Is Your Best Friend

You have probably experienced the frightening situation where you know exactly what you want to say, but do not know how to say it. We have all been there (and wished for a dictionary on hand to consult).

Acquiring good vocabulary of a wide range of words and phrases to express your ideas and thoughts is probably the most important part of preparing to write good TOEFL essays. The richer your vocabulary, the better! When you know more vocabulary, you will have more ways to express your ideas.

Playing it safe is an acceptable strategy with grammar forms, but this does not work well with vocabulary. Relying on generic, basic words will leave you with a flat, uninteresting essay that will not earn the top mark of 5 points even if its grammar and structure are good. So how do you avoid that?

Once you begin practicing writing essays in preparation for the test, you will notice the vocabulary you rely on the most.

Make a list of the English words that you use most often. How many times per essay do you use words like “agree/disagree,” “think,” “say,” “people,” “many,” etc.? These are simple words that may not have many substitutions. However, it is essential for you to have some alternatives. Studying synonyms is one of the easiest ways to expand your vocabulary, useful even beyond passing TOEFL.

To study synonyms, make a list of your most commonly used words and learn a few of their synonyms with the help of online dictionaries and resources available (like Synonym Finder or this simple thesaurus). Learn two or three ways of saying “to do,” “to say” and “to think.” Find alternatives to adjectives like “good,” “bad,” “beautiful” and “nice.” Attempt to substitute “people,” “company,” “students” and “country” with appropriate equivalents. You will notice improvements in your writing in no time.

Another very important point to work on when it comes to vocabulary is identifying words you may be using incorrectly. For example, these could be verbs or adjectives that sound similar:

  • compliment and complement
  • acquire and inquire
  • gregarious and egregious
  • whet and wet
  • master and muster

There also might be words whose meanings you are unsure of but may end up using in hopes of sounding “fancy” or more advanced. Do not fall in that trap! In preparation, learn the correct meanings of words you like and practice putting these words in context. When in doubt, rephrase the sentence and do not use any vocabulary you are not familiar with.

How to Practice for the TOEFL Writing Section

The more writing practice you do for TOEFL, the easier essay writing will come to you. You will get used to identifying your main arguments, structuring your essay correctly and logically and employing diverse vocabulary and grammar.

If you need additional support and guidance, you can take a course online to improve your English writing skills. Inklyo has a great selection of books and courses that instruct ESL students in the art of English writing. The books and courses cover specific topics such as letter writing, essay writing and resume writing, so you can pick the topics that are most helpful for the TOEFL essay.

Writing a lot of essays will also help you feel more prepared when the test day comes, lowering your stress level. You will be able to focus on the actual task without being too nervous.

Another way to get rid of nervousness is to take practice TOEFL exams. After taking a full practice TOEFL exam, you will know exactly what to expect on the actual TOEFL exam day.

And when you are writing an essay, remember that it is not what you argue, but how you argue it that is important for the TOEFL writing section. The grader will not penalize you for your opinions. She is more interested in seeing a well-written, well-argued essay with good grammar usage and a few complex words thrown in here and there.

Good luck!

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TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 17 Solution & Explanation

Solution for TOEFL iBT Reading Test 17

Reading 1 “Layers of Social Class”

1. B

“The different groups are arrayed along a continuum with those [classes] with the most money, education, and prestige at the top.” The pronoun “those” does not refer to choices A, C, or D.

2. A

In this passage, very large describes “enormous.” “… a very small proportion of people” contrasts with very large control. “… vast amounts of wealth” also provides context.

3. A

Although it is not generally accepted paraphrases “Despite social myths to the contrary.”. .. your family provides the best prediction of your future wealth paraphrases”… the best predictor of future wealth is the family into which you are bom.”

4. B

The author uses the example of the Forbes 400 to support the statement that most wealthy people inherit their money. “… most [wealth] is inherited.”

5. B

In this passage, expensive is a synonym for “exclusive.” Context comes from the previous reference to “high-priced.”

6. B

“The upper middle class . . . tend to be well-educated professionals or business executives.”

Choice A is not correct because the lower middle class is composed of workers in skilled trades. Choice C is not correct because the term nouveau riche refers to the upper class that has recently acquired money. Choice D is not correct because the upper class is typically a group that has inherited wealth.

7. B

“.. . an open-class system leads many to think that the majority have a middle-class lifestyle….” Choice A is not correct because they vary widely in lifestyle and in resources. Choice C is not correct because, although the status may be unclear, people do not have a problem defining themselves as middle class. Choice D is not correct because “norm” refers to average, not normal.

8. A

In this passage, mostly is a synonym for “primarily.” Context comes from the root prime, which means “first.”

9. C

“Also known as the working class, this class indues blue collar workers … and many service workers____” Choice A is not correct because they are working in blue collar and service jobs.

Choice B is not correct because service workers and manual laborers are part of the lower middle class, not the lower class that work in minimum-wage jobs. Choice D is not correct because the working class is in the lower middle class, not the lower class.

10. C

“The underclass includes those who are likely to be permanently unemployed … the under class may become dependent on public assistance or illegal activities.” Choices A and D may be true, but they are not mentioned in the passage. Choice B is not correct because the illegal activities cause the increase in crime, not the opposite.

11. D

Choices A, B, and C are mentioned for the first time in paragraph 1, sentence 1.


A Generalization and example is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the following sentence. “The working poor constitute a large portion of those who are poor” provides a general statement which is followed by examples, “People of color and women … the working poor. . . .” Choices B, C, and D are not correct because they are not examples of the generalization.

13. C, E, B summarize the passage.

Choice A is a minor point that supports the major point in Choice C. Choice D is a minor point that supports the major point in Choice E. Choice F is true, but it is not developed as a major point.

Reading 2 “Weather and Chaotic Systems”

14. A “Many chaotic systems [like weather] have a kind of underlying order that explains the general features of their behavior____” Choice B is not correct because it was an incorrect assumption.

Choice C is not correct because it was also an incorrect assumption. Choice D is not correct because today we have a very good understanding of the physical laws of atoms.

15. B In this passage, specific is a synonym for “particular.”

16. B In this passage, control is a synonym for “govern.”

17. A The author uses the example of the car to explain how conditions are used to make predictions. The prediction of the location of the car is compared with the prediction of the weather.

18. D “For tomorrow’s weather, this slightly different initial condition will not change the weather prediction … But for next month’s weather, the two predictions may not agree at all!” Choice A is not correct because the change in the initial conditions was minor. Choice B is not correct because it is not mentioned in the passage. Choice C is not correct because computer models are used to deal with all the data for weather prediction on time scales shorter than a few weeks.

19. C . chaotic systems are described by nonlinear equations.” Choice A is not correct because chaotic systems [like weather] “are not completely random.” Choice B is true, but it is not the reason why weather is considered a chaotic system. Choice D is not correct because many chaotic systems are “ ‘predictably unpredictable.’ ”

20. A “This extreme sensitivity to initial conditions is sometimes called the butterfly effect” Choice B is not correct because the flap of a butterfly’s wings is used to describe the sensitivity, not to predict conditions. Choice C is not correct because the rate of the wings is not mentioned. Choice D is not correct because the cause and result do not refer to different locations. They refer to changes over time.

21. D “Simple systems are described by linear equations in which, [in the linear equations] for example, increasing a cause produces a proportional increase in an effect.” The phrase “in which” does not refer to Choices A, B, or C.

22. B The author mentions the economy to provide an example of another chaotic system. “For example, the economy is nonlinear because a rise in interest rates does not automatically produce a corresponding change in consumer spending.”

23. C In this passage, characteristics is a synonym for “features.” Context comes from the contrast with “details” later in the sentence.

24. D “Our understanding of chaotic systems is increasing at a tremendous rate, but much remains to be learned about them.” Choice A is not correct because “many chaotic systems have a kind of underlying order.” Choice B is not correct because “Our understanding of chaotic systems is increasing at a tremendous rate.” Choice C is not correct because “details .. . remain unpredictable.”

25. B Chronological order is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence in sequence within the text. “… tomorrow” should precede “next week” and “next month” should follow “next week.”

26. D, F, C summarize the passage. Choice A may be true, but it is not directly stated in the passage.

Choice B is a minor point because it is an example. Choice E is a minor point because it is an example.

Reading Passage 3 + 4

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TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 23 Solution & Transcripts

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 23 Solution & Transcripts




2. B

3. D

4. A

5. A

6. A

7. D

8. A

9. A

10. C

11. D

12. B

13. D

14. A, B

15. C


Increased morbidity from toxic alcohol X
Thriving sales in illegally made alcoholic beverages X
Growing protests to ratification of 18th Amendment X
Formulation of new laws to permit weaker alcohols X
Loss of governmental income X

17. B

18. C

19. C


Allowed Not Allowed
Dropping a class any time X
Adding a class any time X
Taking a free class later X
Faxing the form X

21. D

22. B

23. B

24. A

25. B, C

26. D

27. A

28. B

29. D

30. B

31. A, C

32. D

33. A

34. D

——————————————————————————-TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 23 Solution & Transcripts


N: Narrator               P: Professor               S: Student

N: Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.

P: Hey, Barry, come on in.

S: Hi, professor Singh. Thanks for seeing me so close to the exam.

P: Sure. Have a seat. So … what can I do for you?

S: Well, I’m a little worried about the test. Um, I’m estimating that I need a C to at least get credit for the course, but I wanted to make sure how much the group project will count for the final grade.

P: Well, all of that was outlined.  In your syllabus, Barry.

S: Well, yes, I know, but I think I got a bad copy. It’s not really clear. Plus, I wanted to find out If the essay question on the test will cover just the most recent chapters or everything we’ve covered so far.

P: OK. Let’s see … the group project will count for twenty-five percent of your grade, just like the tests and your term paper. As for the essay, well, the entire test will apply only to the material we’ve covered since the last test. Ah, you should know that, Barry. I think I mentioned It in class.

S: Oh, I’m sorry. I must have missed that. Um. what about the supplemental reading? Will it be Included on the test?

P: Oh, well, yes. You will have to understand how all of that relates to the text material. Um, yes, you Should pay, ah, particular attention to those articles.

S: Hmm, OK. I see. Professor, could I ask how I’m doing with class participation?

P: Right, wall, I think you’re fine, Barry. Your participation and attendance have been pretty good so far, Don’t forget, though, that your contribution to your group project will be considered for your participation.

S: I see. Oh, that reminds me. Our project Includes a survey. Do we need to get approval for our questionnaire before we use It In public?

P: Yes, absolutely. I want to take a look at anything that will be used off campus. You understand.

S: I got it. No problem there.

P: Barry, I don’t think there’s much cause for concern here. If you’ve taken good notes and stayed on top of ail the reading, everything on the test should make sense to you. As far as the project is concerned, you know, just make sure you do your fair share and check in with me from time to time.

S: Right. I will. I guess I’m Just a little nervous, that’s all.

P: That’s natural, but I think you’re In pretty good shape overall, Barry. Mmm, was there anything else you wanted to ask me?

S: Um, no, I think that covers It. Thanks so much for talking to me, professor Singh.

P: Sure, Barry, and don’t forget to bring that questionnaire to me when It’s ready.

OK, professor. Thanks again!


N: Narrator          P: Professor            F: Female Student           M: Male Student

N: Lister to a discussion on astronomy. The professor is discussing Jupiter’s atmosphere.

P: May I begin? I’m sure many of you have seen pictures of the fifth planet from the Sun, Jupiter. Maybe a few of you have tried looking at the planet through a telescope. Well, what you are looking at is not the surface of the planet. It’s the atmosphere. So this Is what we’re going to discuss today … and I hope you did the readings because I’d like as many of you as possible to participate in the discussion.

Now Just from a cursory look at the planet, we can see alternating bands of light and dark regions that are parallel to the equator of the planet. Can anyone tell me the difference between the light and dark regions… besides the color, of course.

F: Um … the light region is called a zone and the dark region Is called a belt You have aitemating zones and belts. The zones are actually higher In altitude than the belts, which means they’re cooler. And the belts are areas of low pressure.

P: Very good, Emma. And It’s these alternating zones and belts that have helped astronomers learn some-thing about Jupiter’s constitution. They were able to make certain contrasts between Earth and Jupiter. How did they do that? Well… every part of the Earth rotates at the same speed. That’s because it’s a solid. But what is Jupiter’s rotation like?

M:  It’s not all the same. Some parts are faster, The poles are faster. The equator area is slower.

P:  And this means?

F:  It means Jupiter is not solid.

P: Correct And one more thing. The speed of the rotation lends Jupiter’s atmosphere its characteristic bands. Now … In between these bands, jet streams develop. Jet streams are high-speed hlgh-altltude air streams flowing from west to east. On Earth, jet streams can affect the overall weather in a given area. Weil, we see this happening on Jupiter, too. Some jet streams last thousands of years. Perhaps one of you can describe to the class a result of Jupiter’s jet streams.

M: Yeah, the, uh, Infamous Red Spot. It’s an enormous storm that’s about 14,000 kilometers wide and 40,000 kilometers long. That’s probably big enough to fit two pianets the size of the Earth,

F: Old you say infamous? It’s like any other storm only bigger, stronger and colored red.

P: Right. Well, actually, It’s a bit smaller now. Its size keeps changing since It was first observed by English astronomer Robert Hooke In 1630. But, but let’s move away from the Spot and look at the atmosphere of Jupiter as a whoie. Can anyone here tell me what heavenly body within the Solar System has more or less the same constitution as Jupiter besides Saturn?

F: Uh … It can only be the Sun. Both Jupiter and Saturn are made of helium and hydrogen … just as the Sun Is.

P: Yes … the percentages are different, though, Saturn has 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, the Sun Is 94% hydrogen and 6% helium and Jupiter is somewhere In-between with 82% hydrogen and 18% helium, There are also trace amounts of cartoon, ethane, ammonia, and methane. At the top of the, uh. lighter bands, you’ll have ammonia ice crystals, and Just beneath, liquid ammonia.

F: I have a question, professor. You just now mentioned liquid ammonia … but the, uh, recent Galileo probe mission Into Jupiter’s atmosphere revealed that Jupiter is drier than scientists beileved. So … just how much water Is there on Jupiter?

P: Good question. I’m glad you brought that up. Yes, the Galileo probe mission did discover some very startling things about Jupiter … but the Information I’ve chosen to give you Is what’s still In the textbooks only because the new data has yet to be confirmed. But for those of you who are curious … maybe we can just sum up what the Galileo mission discovered- They found that the helium on the planet was half what they expected it to be … so we might be looking at a configuration that’s closer to the Sun’s own percentages. There was less neon, carbon, oxygen and sulfur. And the probe aiso discovered that the threetiered cloud structure they had been expecting was not there. It’s absence, along with the lower amounts of oxygen, seems to tie In with a Jupiter that has a dry atmosphere. Why Is this so surprising? Well, clouds form when a compound of chemicals condenses from a vapor Into a liquid … or Into Ice. So scientists believed that there were three layers of clouds-one made of ammonia, the second of ammonia hydrosulfide and the third of water, But … as the Galileo reported, the three tiers weren’t there and the water wasn’t there. Puzzling, huh? So … just how much water is there on Jupiter? Well, that has yet to be determined … and there will probably be a readjustment of our existing views of Jupiter. Is that OK?

F: Yes, thanks.

P: So let’s go back to the atmospheric structure. The atmospiie’e Is about a thousand kilometers thick, which is tfio same thickness as the Earth’s atmosphere, but Jupiter being a gas giant, ttie atmosphere simply gets more and more dense as you go down until it reaches what scientists believe to be a total liquid state. Well, let’s stop here, and I’ll give you the readings for the next class.

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