TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 04 from Barron’s TOEFL iBT Solution & Transcription

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 04 from Barron’s TOEFL iBT Solution & Transcription

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 04 from Barron’s TOEFL iBT Solution

Listening 1 “Professor’s Office”

1. D

2. C

3. B

4. D

5. A

6. D

7. A, C

8. B

9. B

Listening 2 “Anthropology Class”

1o. C

11. YES: A, B, D | NO: C, E

Listening 3 “Business Class”

12. B

13. D

14. A

15. B

16. D

17. B

Listening 4 “Student on Campus”

18. B

19. A

20. B

21. C

22. A

Listening 5 “Biology Class”

23. D

24. B

25. A

26. A

27. B

28. D

Listening 6 “Orientation Session”

29. B

30. A

31. B

32. C

33. A: Fixating | C: Regressing | B: Auditory reading

34. D

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 04 from Barron’s TOEFL iBT Transcripts


Audio Conversation

Narrator         Listen to part of a conversation on campus between a student and a professor.

Professor: So what did you want to see me about Emie?

Student:         My grade. I’m not doing very well in this class.

Professor. Well, that’s not exactly true. You were doing very well until the last test.

Student:         I got a D. Professor Adams, I’ve never gotten a D in my life… before this, I mean. So that’s why I’m here. I hope you can give me some advice.

Professor. Well, from my class book, I see that your attendance is excellent. No absences, so that’s not the problem.

Student:         No. I never miss class. I’m a serious student. I just don’t know what happened on that test.

Professor:  Did you bring it? The test?

Student: Yes. I did. Here it is.

Professor:  Okay. I think I remember this, but there were almost a hundred tests to grade, so let’s have a look at it.

Student:         Thanks.

Professor: Well, Ernie … let’s see … Here it is. Yes, I do recall this test. You didn’t finish it You stopped after question 15. So you had 5 questions that were counted wrong because they… because you didn’t complete the test.

Student:         I know. I didn’t watch the time, and I just couldn’t believe it when you asked us to hand in the tests.

Professor: Yes. I see. But you did a good job on the questions that you did respond to.

Student:         Professor Adams, maybe you won’t believe me, but I know the answers to the questions that I… that… that…

Professor: The ones that you left blank at the end.

Student:         Yeah. So now I need some advice about how to bring up my grade because a D is going to make a big difference.

Professor: This test counts 25 percent so. uh,… you’re right. It will bring it down at least a letter.

Student:         I know.

Professor. Okay then. The first thing is to learn something from this. You have to find a way to pace yourself through tests or you’re going to have this problem again.

Student:  Okay. That’s good. Now, uh, what about the grade for this class?

Student:         I was hoping you might give me a chance to… to maybe do an extra credit assignment.

Professor:  Hummm. I don’t know about that.

Student:         Oh.

Professor:  But here’s what we can do. If you want to finish the test right now, and your answers are satisfactory, then I’ll add some points to your grade.

Student:         You will? I know the answers. Really I…

Professor … I can’t give you full credit for your answers. That wouldn’t be fair to the other students, but I can add some points, and that should help you somewhat.

Student:         Wow. This is great.

Professor:  Okay. Just take your test over there and finish it. You had about an hour to complete 20 questions, so, uh,… that would be 15 minutes to finish the 5 questions you left blank. And Ernie … pace yourself.

Student:         I will! Thanks. Thanks a lot. 



Audio Lecture

Narrator Listen to part of a lecture in an anthropology dass The professor is discussing agriculture


Let’s just pick up where we left off last week. Okay, as you’ll recall, earlier theories about the develop ment of agriculture tended to view it as a progressive event, or even as a catalyst for everything from art to industry, but I’m going to share a rather different view with you. From a revisionist perspective, the development of agriculture about 10,000 years ago didn’t improve the lives of early farmers. On the contrary. when hunter-gatherers abandoned the age-old method of foraging for food and began to cultivate crops, they put their health at risk. Now I know it’s just the opposite of… it’s quite a different viewpoint let’s say, so… why would this be so . why would their health decline when agriculture provided people with an efficient way to get more food for less work?

Clearly, cultivated fields yield more food per acre than uncultivated land with undomesticated patches of berries and nuts. Well, first let’s consider the conditions that are necessary for agriculture to flourish. In order to have enough labor to plant, tend, and harvest crops, a larger number of people must well they have to cooperate. That means that the density of the population must increase in the area surrounding the cultivated farms. And, as we know, crowding contributes to the transmission of infectious diseases. So when hunter-gatherers were wandering in small bands, the likelihood of an epidemic was slight, but after the agricultural revolution, tuberculosis . . . and diseases of the intestinal tract.. . these began to reach epidemic proportions in the crowded agricultural communities. And in addition, because the population was no longer mobile and … and relied on trade to inject variety into the lives and diets of the farmers, that meant that disease was also transmitted through the exchange of goods.                        •

Now, the revisionists also argue that the content of the (Set for earty farmers was inferior to that of the hunter-gatherers. You’ll recall that hunter-gatherers enjoyed a variety of foods selected from wild plants and game, and in studies of modem tribes that have continued the tradition of hunting and gathering food, it appears that those … the hunters and gatherers … they have a better balance of nutrients and even more protein than tribes that have adopted agricultural lifestyles. Today, three grain crops… wheat, com, and rice… these account for the bulk of calories consumed by farming societies. So, consider the implications. Extrapolating from this and from evidence that earty farmers raised only one or two crops, we can conclude that a disproportionate amount of carbohydrates formed the basis of their diets.

Now another interesting series of studies involve the skeletal remains of hunter-gatherers as com-pared with their agricultural relatives. And one such study from Greece and Turkey… it indicates that the average height of hunter-gatherers at the end of the Ice Age was … let me check my notes… yes, it was 5’9s for men and 5’5 for women. And their bones were strong, healthy, and athletic. But, after the agricultural revolution, skeletal remains revealed that height had diminished to a shocking 5’3s for men and 5’ for women. And evidence from bone samples suggests that they suffered from diseases caused by malnutrition, like anemia. And this is interesting. Further studies from paleontologists at the University of Massachusetts project life expectancies for hunter-gatherers at about twenty-six years, but post agricultural life expectancies were less than twenty years. Let me just read you something from one of the studies by George Armelagos, and I quote, “episodes of nutritional stress and infectious disease were seriously affecting their ability to survive.” And he’s referring to earty farmers here.

So. let’s see where we are. Oh, yes. Consider that hunter-gatherers had the advantage of mobility. So if food wasn’t plentiful, they broke camp and moved on in search of an area with a larger food supply. And, if one type of food were in short supply, for example … well, berries, then they wouldn’t eat berries but there would probably be a good supply of another type of food, like nuts. Or hunting might compensate for a bad year for plant foods But farmers were very vulnerable to crop failures. Remember, most early farmers cultivated only one or two crops. If there was a drought and the grain harvest failed, they didn’t have other resources and that’s why they were subject to malnutrition or even starvation. So, as you see, revisionists have made a rather convincing case. To sum it up, according to the revisionists, the development of agriculture put the health of earty fanners at risk.

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TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 03 Solution & Transcription

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 03 Solution & Transcription

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 03 Solution

Listening 1 “Student on Campus”

1. B

2. C

3. A

4. C

5. B

Listening 2 “Sociology Class”

6. C

7. B, C

8. C

9. C

10. A : YES/ B: NO / C : YES

11. B

Listening 3 “Art History Class”

12. D

13. B, C

14. C

15. B

16. D

17. B

Listening 4 “Admissions Office”

18. D

19. B

20. B

21. D

22. B

Listening 5 “Anthropology Class”

23. A

24. B

25. B, C

26. B

27. A

28. B

Listening 6 “Geology Class”

29. B

30. A

31. D

32. B

33. B

34. A

Listening 7 “Library”

35. B

36. B

37. D

38. D

39. B

Listening 8 “Literature Class”

40. A

41. A

42. C

43. A

44. B

45. D

Listening 9 “General Science Class”

46. D

47. B

48. B

49. C

50. A

51. B

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 03 Transcripts


Audio Conversation

Narrator: Listen to part of a conversation on campus between two students.

Man: I wish I were as sure about my future as you seem to be. I… I realLy don’t know what I want to do after I graduate. 

Woman: Well, have you talked with a counselor over at the Office of Career Development?

Man: No…I talked to my academic advisor, though.

Woman: That’s good, but it’s really better to see someone who specializes in helping people make career decisions. You see, an academic advisor is there to help you work out your academic program. You know, figure out what your major is going to be and which courses to take and all that. But a career counselor has a lot of experience and resources to help you decide what you want to do in the work world.

Man:Did you see a career counselor?

Woman:I sure did. Last semester. I was… well, I didn’t even know what I would be good at, for a career, I mean. So I made an appointment at the Office of Career Development, and I talked with a counselor.

Man:Do you remember who it was?

Woman:Sure. It was Ruth Jackson.

Man:Oh, but since I’m interested in careers for math majors, probably I should see someone else.

Woman:Not really. Any of the counselors can help you. Look, first I took some aptitude tests and something called a … uh … I think it was called a career inventory. Anyway, I took several tests, and then the counselor gave me some ideas about different careers. I even went to some group sessions with some other students for a few weeks. Mrs. Jackson was the group leader, so, um, that’s how I met her, and then I just sort of naturally started making my appointments with her when I needed some advice.

Man: It sounds like it took a lot of time. I’m so busy already.

Woman: Well, it did take time. Probably three hours for the tests, and I think I went to maybe four group sessions, and then I saw Ruth a couple of times. I guess about nine or ten hours probably. But it was worth it.

Man: So, is that why you decided to go into library science? Because of the tests and everything?

Woman: In part But, mostly it was because of the internship. You see, I also got my internship through the Office of Career Development. And when I was working as an intern in the public library, it all sort of came together tor me. I really liked what I was doing, and I realized that I didn’t want the internship to end.

Man: And you get paid for working there in the library too, don’t you?

Woman: I get paid, and I get credit toward my degree. But even better, I have a job offer from the library where I’m doing my internship.

Man: Wow! Are you going to take it?

Woman: I think so. I have to let them know next week. If I do take the job, I’ll have to go to graduate school to get a degree in library science, but I can do that part-time while I’m working, and I had thought about graduate school anyway. So, I’m leaning toward taking the job.

Man: That’s great, Anne. I’m glad for you. So, uh, I guess I’d better make an appointment with Ruth Jackson. Maybe she can find me an internship.

Woman: Maybe.


Audio Lecture

Narrator Listen to part of a lecture in a sociology class.


Social influence involves the changes in behavior influenced by the actions of other people. Social influence can come about for a variety of reasons, on a continuum from mere suggestion to, in the more severe form, well, to torture. How does social influence work? Well, first we must become aware of a difference between ourselves and the values or behaviors of other people. There are a great many studies of social influence that demonstrate how the presence of others can cause us to change our attitudes or actions. Studies show that people eat more when dining with others than, and I’m talking about dining out here, so they eat more in the company of others than they do when they’re alone. They also run faster when others are running with them. There’s even some interesting research on social influence among animals with similar results to… to those of human studies.

Probably one of the most interesting aspects of social influence is the pressure for conformity. Con-formity is a process by which an individual’s opinion or behavior moves toward the norms of the group. In a dassic study by Solomon Asch, seven people were shown cards with three lines drawn on them. Here’s an example:

So, they were shown the lines, and then they were asked to select the line among the three that matched the, uh … the … standard line. Here’s the standard. So there’s no question as to the comparison This has to be easy, right? Wrong. You see, Asch enlisted the cooperation of six of the seven participants in the experiment. On the first card, the six respond correctly—they . . . they identify the lines of the same length—so the seventh person, who is the only real subject in the experiment, well, the seventh person answers correctly, in agreement with the others. But on the next card, four of the cooperating participants choose an incorrect answer, but they’re in agreement, so the problem for the subject is whether to conform to the opinion of the peer group, even though the answer, uh, is in conflict with the answer that the subject knows to be correct.

So what do you think happened? Well, subjects who were tested alone made errors in answers fewer than 1 percent of the time. This was the control group. But of those tested in groups of seven, let’s see. uh, 75 percent yielded at least once to conform to a group answer that was ctearty incorrect, and on average, subjects conformed to the group in about 37 percent of the critical trials. This means that they were bring-ing their behavior into agreerrtent with group norms in … in spite of what they were seeing.

Later Asch manipulated the size of the control group … I’m sorry, the experimental group… to see whether group size would affect pressure, and it did, but probably less than you might expect. Um … groups of four demonstrated about the same results as groups of eight. Interestingly enough, a unanimous agreement by the group was more important than the number. In other words, a unanimous opinion by three exerted more pressure to conform than a majority of seven with a dissenting opinion in a group of eight.

Similar experiments have been performed in various countries, among diverse cultural groups, with, um, comparable results. Of course, people in cultures that emphasize group cooperation tended to be more willing to conform, but remember that many of the original studies were done in the United States where there’s a high value placed on individualism. In an interesting variation on the study, Abrams found that conformity is especially strong when the group is selected from among those people that the subject dearly identifies with, either because, um … they have characteristics in common or… or they know each other and interad in a peer group outside of the experimental situation.

So what does ail of this mean in the real world? Well, since group members can influence one another to conform to the opinion of the group, the group… decisions of a group, uh, may be called into question. What about decisions by political committees or parliaments? What about juries who are charged with convicting or acquitting an accused defendant? Clearfy, social influence will play a part in these critical group decisions.

Also interesting is the fad that after a decision is made by a group, there’s a tendency to solidify, and by that I mean that the group becomes even more convinced of the validity of the group opinion. Um … this may happen because individual group members who strongly support the group tend to be more popular with the group members.

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TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 02 Solution & Transcription

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 02 Solution & Transcription

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 02 Solution

Listening 1 “Professor’s Office”

1. B

2. D

3. C

4. C

5. A

Listening 2 “Art History Class”

6. C

7. A

8. C

9. A

10. C

11. B

Listening 3 “Linguistic “

12. B

13. A

14. A, C

15. B

16. A

17. D

Listening 4 “College Campus”

18. C

19. A

20. B

21. D

22. C

Listening 5 “Zoology Class”

23. B

24. C

25. A

26. B, C

27. C

28. A – B- C : YES / D : NO

Listening 6 “Business Class”

29. A

30. C

31. B

32. A

33. D

34. D

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 02 Transcripts


Audio Conversation

Narrator Listen to part of a conversation between a student and a professor


Student: Professor James. Do you have a minute?

Professor: Sure. Come on in. What can I do for you?

Student: Well. I did pretty well on the midterm

Professor: You sure did. One of the best grades, as I recall.

Student: But I missed a question, and Td appreciate it if you could help me understand what I did wrong. I have the test right here, and I just can’t figure it out.

Professor: Okay. Fire away.

Student: It’s question 7… the one on biotic provinces and biomes.

Professor: Oh, that one. Um, quite a few people missed it. I was thinking that we should go over it again in class. But anyway, let’s look at your answer.

Student: Thanks. Here’s the thing. I said that a biotic province was a region with similar life, but with boundaries that prevent plants and animals from spreading to other regions. So an

animal, for example, a mammal … it may have a genetic ancestor in common with another mammal. But a biome is a similar environment, an ecosystem really, like a desert or a tropical rainforest. So, in the case of a biome, well, the similar climate causes the plants and animals to evolve … to adapt to the climate, and that’s why they look alike.

Professor: That’s good, very good… as far as you went. But there’s a second part to the question. Look, right here. Indude an explanation of convergent and dvergent evolution’ So .. .

I was looking for a more complete answer. Next time, be sure to include both parts of a

question . . . when there are two parts like this one Do you know how to explain

convergent and divergent evolution?

Student: I think so. Isn’t it… like when a group of plants or animals … when they’re separated by mountains or a large body of water… then subpopulations evolve from a common ancestor and they have similar characteristics but their development diverges because of the separation, so that’s why we cal it divergent evolution.

Professor: Right Even when the habitat is similar, if they’re separated, then they diverge…. Howabout convergent evolution then?

Student: Well, that would be a situation where a similar environment… a habitat . . it may cause plants and animals to evolve in order to adapt to the conditions. So a species that isn’t really related can evolve with similar characteristics because … it can look like a species in another geographic region because of adaptation … and that would be convergent evolution?

Professor: Right again. So temperature and rainfall, proximity to water, latitude and longitude all combine to determine the climate, and if we know the climate of an area, then we can actually predict what kind of life will inhabit it.

Student: Okay. And I really did know that. I just didn’t put it down. To tell tho truth. I didn’t see the second part. Not until you pointed it out to me. 

Professor: That’s what I thought. Well, Jerry, ifs a good idea to double-check all the questions on a test… not just my test… any test… to make sure you’ve answered each part of the question completely. Otherwise, you won’t get full credit.

Student: I see that. Well, live and learn.

Professor: Jerry, you’re one of my best students.

Student: Thanks. I really like biology. In fact. I’m thinking of majoring in it.

Professor: Good. That means you’ll be in some of my upper-level classes

Student: And I’ll be watching out for those two-part questions on your exams.

Professor: And all the rest of your exams. I’ll be honest with you. My questions usually have two parts so the students will have an insight into the grading system and a lot of pro-fessors do that. In an essay question, it’s difficult to know what to include and how much to write. Just read the question carefully, and be sure to include all the parts. There may be three or four in some essay questions. This is the way that the professor helps you organize your answer. I’m giving my students a hint about what I’m looking for by including several parts to the question. But if you miss one of the parts, then it lowers your score.

Student: That makes sense. I think I was just trying to finish within the time limit, and I didn’t read as carefully as I should have. On the final, I’ll spend more f before I start to answer them.

Professor: Good plan.



Audio Discussion

Narrator Listen to part of a discussion in an art history class.


Sorry about the tests. I don’t have them finished. They just took longer to grade than I thought they would. So … I’ll have them for you next time. Okay then. Let’s begin our discussion of the ballet. … If you read the chapter in your text, you already know that uh … in 1489, a performance that was something like a dinner theater was organized to celebrate the marriage of the Duke of Milan, and… a dance representing Jason and the Argonauts was performed just before the roasted lamb was served. By the way, ifs interesting that the dance was called an entree and that name has been retained for courses in meals. Anyway, about the same time, outdoor entertainment, you know . . . parades and equestrian events .. . they were becoming more popular, and uh … we have evidence that they were referred to as “horse ballets.”

Student 1:

So this … the horse ballet… was it the first time the term ‘bailer was used? 


Right The actual term in Italian was baUetti, which mean! ‘a dance done in figures.’ And it was characterized by the arrangement of the performers in various patterns. Actually, the balletti were staged versions of the social dances that were popular at court, and the steps … the basic movements … they were walking, swaying, and turning … so they combined in a variety of… of… sequences, each of which was named so that, uh, they could be referred to in the directions for individual dances. In fact, specific instructions for the placement of the dancer’s feet probably provided the first, uh … the first record of the five positions of classical ballet. Question?

Student 2:

Sony. I’m trying to get clear on the dancers. Um … could you explain what the book means about court dancing and. uh … I’m not saying this very well.

Professor. .

I think I know where you’re going. You see, the directions that were written down were intended as a reference for social dancing, but they were, uh .. . important in the history of ballet because uh … the theatrical dances or entertainments that preceded ballet were… not performed by professional dancers. Members of the court danced for the entertainment of society, and in general, the performances were in the central halls of castles and palaces with the audience seated in galleries above so that, uh, the floor figures could… could be seen when the people looked down. But back to your question… because of the limitations of the performers and the arrangement of the staging, well, the best way to impress the audience was to keep the steps simple enough for the amateur dancers but the geometrical patterns

had to be. uh intricate and … and fresh … so the spectators would go away pleased because

they’d seen something new.

Student 2:

Oh, I get it now. That makes sense, too, because everyone would be looking down at the dancers.

Exactly. Now to continue that thought for a moment — by the middle of. the sixteenth century, variety shows were being presented on a grand scale in Northern Italy. They included both indoor and outdoor entertainment, and most people called them spectacuti. And. uh … France had begun to make a significant contribution to tho dance form that evolved into modem ballet. But, to be precise, it was Catherine de Medici who used dance as part of her court entertainments and is, uh … credited with the use of the term ballet In 1573 … I think it was 1573.. – anyway, she organized a huge celebration to welcome the ambassadors from Poland who had arrived to, uh … to offer their country s throne to her son Henn. So she called it the Pohsh BaHet. and the production was staged on a lancing at the top of a grand staircase. Sixteen ladies… and these would not have been dancers… just members

of court so they represented the sixteen provinces of France, and they performed a choreographed dance with a variety of floor figures. Afterward, the audience joined in court dances, similar to the baHroom dancing that evolved later…. So that’s a long answer to your original question.

Professor Okay.

Student 1:

You said that the Polish Ballet was the first ballet, but I thought the book said the first ballet was Queen Louise’s Ballet.


Good question. Well, I said the Polish Ballet was the first use of the term ballet for a dance performance, but Queen Louise’s Ballet is generally considered the first modem ballet. As you’ll remember, from the book, the ballet was performed before ten thousand guests, and it was five hours long. When I was doing the research for this lecture, I saw several references to the time, so … so I know that this is accurate, but I kept thinking, no one would watch a ballet for five hours. But it must be correct I can only assume that other activities were going on simultaneously, like a banquet and conversation. Don’t you think?

Anyway, what makes Queen Louise’s Ballet so unique, besides the length, and why it’s the first modem ballet, is that it was connected by a story line or, in technical terms, uh, if s called dramatic cohesion. Each scene was related to the tales of Circe, a Greek enchantress, who Used her powers to battle with man and the gods. The triumph of good, portrayed by Jupiter, over evil, portrayed by Circe, was told in a … let’s call it a unified production.

Transcripts for Listening 3 + 4

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TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 01 Solution & Transcription

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 01 Solution & Transcription

TOEFL iBT Listening Practice Test 01 Solution & Transcription

Listening 1 “Learning Center” Key

1. C

2. A

3. B

4. D

5. D



Listen to a conversation on campus between two students.

Man: Hi. Are you Paula?

Woman: Jim?

Man: Hi. Nice to meet you.

Woman: Glad to meet you.

Man. So. You need some tutoring in English?

Woman: Yeah. I’m taking English composition, and I’m not doing very well on my essays.

Man: Right. Um, well, first let’s see if we can figure out a time to meet… that we’re  both free.

Woman: Okay.

Man: How about Mondays? Maybe in the morning? I don’t have any classes until eleven on Mondays.

Woman: That would work, but I was hoping we could, you know, meet more than once a week.

Man: Oh Well, Tuesdays are out. I’ve got classes and. uh. I work at the library part time on Tuesdays and Thursdays. But I could get together on Wednesdays

Woman: In the morning?

Man: Probably ninethirty would be best. That way we’d have an hour to work before I’d have to get ready for my eleven o’clock.

Woman: So that would be two hours a week then?

Man: I could do that.

Woman: Oh. but, would that be extra? You know, would I need to pay you for the extra session?

Man:  No. Um, just so you meet me here at the Learning Center, and we both sign in, then I’ll get paid. Tutoring is free, to you. I mean. The school pays me. But we both have to show up If you don’t show up and sign in for a session, then I don’t get paid. So…

Woman: Oh. don’t worry about that. I really need the help. I won’t miss any sessions unless I’m sick or something.

Man: Okay then. So you want me to help you with your essays?

Woman: Right. I could bring you some that have, you know, comments on them. I’m getting C’s and…

Man:  WeH, that’s not too bad. Once I see some of your writing, we should be able to pull that up to a B.

Woman: You think so?

Man:  Sure. But I need to explain something. Some of my students in the past . . . they expected me to write their essays for them. But that’s not what a tutor is supposed to do. My job is to help you be a better writer.

Woman: Oh, I understand that But you’ll read my essays, right?

Man: Oh yeah. No problem. We’ll read them together, and I’ll make suggestions.

Woman: Great. I think part of the problem is I just don’t understand the teacher’s comments. Maybe you can help me figure them out.

Man: Sure. Who’s the teacher?

Woman: Simpson.

Man:  No problem. I’ve tutored a couple of her students, so I know more or less where she’s

Woman: coming from. Okay, then. I guess we’ll meet here on Monday. I’ll be here. Ninethirty you said.

Man:  Just sign in when you get here. 

Listening 2 “Geology Class” Key

6. B

7. B

8. B

9. C

10. A,D,E

11. C



Listen to part of a lecture in a geology class.


Okay, today we’re going to discuss the four major types of drainage patterns. I trust you’ve already read the chapter so you’ll recall that a drainage pattern is the arrangement of channels that carry water in an area. And these patterns can be very distinctive since they’re determined by the climate, the topography, and the composition of the rock that underlies the formations. So, consequently, we can see that a drainage pattern is really a good visual summary of the characteristics of a particular region, both geologically and climatically. In other words, when we look at drainage patterns, we can draw conclusions about the structural formation and relief of the land as well as the climate.

Now all drainage systems are composed of an interconnected network of streams, and, when we view them together, they form distinctive patterns. Although there are at least seven identifiable kinds of drainage patterns, for our purposes, we’re going to limit our study to the four major types. Probably the most familiar pattern is the dendritic drainage pattern.

This is a stream that looks like the branches of a tree. Here’s an example of a dendritic pattern. As you can see, it’s similar to many systems in nature. In addition to the structure of a tree, it also resembles the human circulation system. This is a very efficient drainage system because the overall length of any one branch is fairfy short, and there are many branches, so that allows the water to flow quickly and efficiently from the source or sources.

Okay, let’s look at the next example.

This drainage pattern is referred to as a radial pattern. Notice how the streams flow from a central point. This is usually a high mountain, or a volcano, tt kind of looks like the spokes that radiate out from the hub at a wheel. When we see a radial pattern, we know that the area has experienced uplift and that the direction of the drainage is down the slopes of a relatively isolated central point.

Going back to the dendritic for a moment. The pattern is determined by the direction of the slope of the land, but it, uh, the streams flow in more or less the same direction, and … so it’s unlike the radial that had multiple directions of flow from the highest point.

Now this pattern is very different from either the dendritic or the radial.

This is called a rectangular pattern, and I think you can see why. Just look at all of those rightangle turns. The rectangle pattern is typical of a landscape that’s been formed by fractured joints and faults. And because this broken rock is eroded more easily than unbroken rock, stream beds are carved along the jointed bedrock.

Finally we have the trellis pattern. And here in this example, you can see quite clearly how the tributaries of an almost parallel structure drain into valleys and … and form the appearance of a garden trellis. This pattern forms in areas where there are alternating bands of variable resistance, and by that I mean that the bands of rock that are very strong and resistant to erosion alternate with bands of rock that are weak and easily eroded. This often happens when a horizontal plain folds and outcroppings appear.

So. as I said, as a whole, these patterns are dictated by the structure and relief of the land.

The kinds of rocks on which the streams are developed, the structural pattern of the folds, uh. faults, and … uplift will usually determine a drainage system. However. I should also mention that drainage patterns can occasionally appear to be. well, out of sync with the landscape. And this can happen when a stream flows over older structures that have been uncovered by erosion or… or when a stream keeps its original drainage system when rocks are uplifted. So when that happens, the pattern appears to be contrary to the expected course of the stream. But Pm interested irr your understanding the basic drainage systems. So I don’t plan to trick you with test questions about exceptional patterns, but I expect you to know that exceptions to the patterns can occur when geological events influence them.

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TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 01 – Solution and Explanation

TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 01 - Solution and Explanation

TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 01 – Solution and Explanation {From TOEFl iBT IVY’S Reading 15 Actual Test }


1. (D) 2. (A) 3.(C) 4. (A) 5. (A) 6. (D) 7.(0 8. (B) 9. (D) 10. (A) 11. (D) 12. (D) 13.0 14. (B), (E), (F)

1.    Reference | (D)

Q. The phrase His source in the passage refers to

Why? … it has been estimated that the oceans could provide nearly 3,000 times the energy generated by hydroelectric dams such as the Hoover Dam. Yet, this source remains quite difficult to exploit.==>See Clue 1(D)[lines 7-11]

2.    Vocabulary | (A)

Q. The word exploit in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? utilize can replace exploit in this context.

•    exploit v. to use something completely

•    utilize v. to use something for a specific purpose

3. Rhetorical Purpose | (C)

Q. Why does the author mention The Hoover Dam in paragraph 1?

Why? The Hoover Dam is mentioned in order to draw a comparison between two sources of renewable energy, oceans and hydroelectric dams. ==>See Clue 3(C)[lines 7-10]

4. Factual Information | (A)

Q. In paragraph 2, the author states that

Why? Waves are exemplified as one of the forms of ocean power. ==>See Clue 4(A)[lines 14-17] mm Why Not? (BHD) Not mentioned

5. Vocabulary | (A)

Q. The word induce in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? cause can replace induce in this context ==>See Clue 5(A)[lines 26-28]

•    induce v. to cause a certain physical condition

•    cause v. to make something occur

6. Factual Information | (D)

Q. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true about wave-power technologies?

Why? ==>See Clue 6(D)[lines 25-28]

► All of them work because the movement of the water that the waves induce creates storable energy…

— rely on the water’s motion to create electricity _ Why Not? (A), (B) Incorrect ==>See lines 39-42/ (C) Incorrect ==>See lines 24-25

7. Factual Information | (C)

Q. According to paragraph 5, what part did the cables play in OSPREY’s design?

_ Why? ==>See Clue 7(C)[lines 70-72]

The electricity was then transmitted to power collectors on the shore via underwater cables.

— They conducted the electricity from the generator to the shore

8. Vocabulary | (B)

Q. The word inhibited in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? prevented can replace inhibited in this context. “==>See Clue 8(B)[lines 83-86]

•    inhibit v. to stop something from developing well

•    prevent v. to keep something from happening, or keep someone from doing something

9. Vocabulary | (D)

Q. The word feasible in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? appropriate can replace feasible in this context. ==>See Clue 9(D)[lines 94-95]

•    feasible adj. plan, idea, or method that is likely to work

•    appropriate adj. suitable for a specific time, situation, or purpose

10. Sentence Simplification | (A)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? For example, despite the relative abundance of proposed wave-power devices, // many have not been adequately tested, and most have been evaluated // only in artificial pools where they are not subjected to the harsh marine conditions that exist in actual oceans, ocean conditions

Why Not? (B) Information about the marine conditions in actual oceans is left out.

(C)    Information about the ocean-based energy industry is not mentioned.

(D)    Information that testing wave-energy collectors can lead to inconclusive results is not mentioned.

11. Inference | (D)

Q. What can be inferred from paragraph 7 about governments?

Why? (D) can be inferred from the information in lines 84-86. ==>See Clue 11(D) m Why Not? (A)-(C) Not supported

12. Negative Fact | (D)

Q. All of these are problems associated with the collection of wave energy EXCEPT

Incorrect Answer Choices Mentioned in the passage
(A) the difficulty of finding feasible locations [lines 94-95] determining feasible locations
(B) the destructive power of the ocean [line 93] the sea’s destructive forces


13. Insert Text | D

Q.  Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? C Also, these methods demand the construction of site-specific machines that take into consideration average local wave heights and sea conditions. D Such a requirement can be quite cost-prohibitive, because engineers must create unique power generation mechanisms for each site. In other words, the ability to get power from waves differs from region to region.

► ‘Such a requirement” in the given sentence refers to “the construction of site-specific machines.” And the decisive clue is the connection between ‘demand’ and “requirement.” In other words is used to mention the preceding information again.

14. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Why? The quest to establish a reliable source of renewable energy has led researchers to explore a variety of means of harnessing the energy of ocean waves.

Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
(B) Several different methods of gathering wave energy have been developed, including floating generators and partially submerged air chambers with turbines. Clue 14(B)[lines 24-25] There are several methods by which ocean-wave energy can be collected.

(line 31] a long floating tube

[lines 35-36] the tube that can be used to drive a


[lines 41-46] compress air in a partially submerged chamber…. Located inside this tunnel is a turbine connected to a power generator.

(E) Some of the advantages offered by ocean energy include low maintenance costs, little or no environmental harm, and huge production levels. Clue 14(E)[lines 79-82] Maintenance costs are small, and the equipment does not pose any threats of environmental pollution. And best of all, the amounts of energy produced are enormous.
(F) Wave-energy projects are confronted by many problems, particularly the great diversity of ocean sites and the difficulty of avoiding damage to the equipment. Clue 14(F)[lines 59-60] the ability to get power from waves differs from region to region [lines 92-96] Protecting the equipment from the sea’s destructive forces … also present formidable challenges.

► The whole passage focuses on the methods of using wave energy and their advantages and difficulties. And it follows that ((B) Several methods of collecting wave energy —»(E) Advantages of wave energy —» (F) Difficulties in using wave energy) –See (Graphic Organizer) on p. 237 

Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 17-20, but minor / (C), (D) Not mentioned

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